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With apologies for not fixing the equations or symbols.

Someone send me the replacement text, and I will fix it!

These 5 articles are included in this file below:

1. "CONQUEST OF GRAVITY AIM OF TOP SCIENTISTS IN U. S." New York Herald-Tribune: Sunday, November 20, 1955, pp. l & 36.

2. "SPACE-SHIP MARVEL SEEN IF GRAVITY IS OUTWITTED" New York Herald-Tribune: Monday, November 21, 1955, pp. 1 & 6.

3. "NEW AIR DREAM-PLANES FLYING OUTSIDE GRAVITY" New York Herald-Tribune: Tuesday, November 22, 1955, pp. 6 & 10.

4. "Towards Flight - without Stress or Strain... or Weight" By INTEL, Washington, D.C.

5. THE GRAVITICS SITUATION (Theme of the science for 1956-1970) By Gravity Rand Ltd., December 1956.

NEW YORK HERALD-TRIBUNE: Sunday, November 20, 1955, pp. l & 36


(Photo insert): "ANTI-GRAVITY RESEARCH - Dr. Charles T. Dozier, left,
senior research engineer and guided missiles expert of the Convair Division
of General Dynamics Corp., conducting a research experiment toward control
of gravity with Martin Kaplan, Convair Senior electronics engineer."

(Photo insert): "IN CHARGE - George S. Trimble jr, vice-president in charge
of advanced design planning of Martin Aircraft Corp., is organizing a new
research institute for advanced study to push a program of theoretical
research on gravitational effect"


(Revolution in Power, Air, Transit Is Seen)

This is the first of a series on new pure and applied research into the
mysteries of gravity and efforts to devise ways to counteract it. Written
by Ansel E. Talbert, military and aviation editor, N.Y.H.T.

The initial steps of an almost incredible program to solve the secret of
gravity and universal gravitation are being taken today in many of
America's top scientific laboratories and research centres. A number of
major, long-established companies in the United States aircraft and
electronics industries also are involved in gravity research. Scientists,
in general, bracket gravity with life itself as the greatest unsolved
mystery in the Universe. But there are increasing numbers who feel that
there must be a physical mechanism for its propagation which can be
discovered and controlled.

Should this mystery be solved it would bring about a greater revolution in
power, transportation and many other fields than even the discovery of
atomic power. The influence of such a discovery would be of tremendous
import in the field of aircraft design - where the problem of fighting
gravity's effects has always been basic.


One almost fantastic possibility is that if gravity can be understood
scientifically and negated or neutralized in some relatively inexpensive
manner, it will be possible to build aircraft, earth satellites, and even
space ships that will move swiftly into outer space, without strain, beyond
the pull of earth's gravity field. They would not have to wrench themselves
away through the brute force of powerful rockets and through expenditure of
expensive chemical fuels.

Centres where pure research on gravity now is in progress in some form
include the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, N.J. and also at
Princeton University: the University of Indiana's School of Advanced
Mathematical Studies and the Purdue University Research Foundation.

A scientific group from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which
encourages original research in pure and applied science, recently attended
a seminar at the Roger Babson Gravity Research Institute of New Boston,
N.H., at which Clarence Birdseye, inventor and industrialist, also was
present. Mr. Birdseye gave the world its first packaged quick-frozen foods
and laid the foundation for todays frozen food Industry: more recently he
has become interested in gravitational studies.

A proposal to establish at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
N.C., an 'Institute of Pure Physics' primarily to carry on theoretical
research on gravity was approved earlier this month by the University's
board of trustees. This had the approval of Dr. Gordon Gray who has since
retired as president of the University. Dr. Gray has been Secretary of the
Army, Assistant Secretary of Defence, and special assistant to the
President of the United States.

FUNDS COLLECTED: Funds to make the institute possible were collected by
Agnew H. Bahnson jr., an industrialist of Winston Salem, N.C. The new
University of North Carolina administration is now deciding on the
institute's scope and personnel. The directorship has been offered to Dr.
Bryce S. Dewitt of the Radiation Laboratories at the University of
California at Berkeley, who is the author of a Roger Babson prize-winning
scientific study entitled, 'New Directions for Research in the Theory of

The same type of scientific disagreement which occurred in connection with
the first proposals to build the hydrogen bomb and an artificial earth
satellite -now under construction - is in progress over anti-gravity
research. Many scientists of repute are sure that gravity can be overcome
in comparatively few years if sufficient resources are put behind the
project. Others believe it may take a quarter of a century or more.

REFUSE TO PREDICT:Some pure physicists, while backing the general program
to try to discover how gravity is propagated, refuse to make predictions of
any kind. Aircraft industry firms now participating or actively interested
in gravity include Glenn L. Martin Co. of Baltimore, builders of the
nation's first giant jet-powered flying boat; Convair of San Diego,
designers and builders of the giant B-36 intercontinental bomber and the
world's first successful vertical take-off fighter; Bell Aircraft of
Buffalo, builders of the first piloted airplane to fly faster than sound
and a current jet take-off and landing airplane, and Sikorsky Division of
United Aircraft, pioneer helicopter builders.

Lear, Inc., of Santa Monica, one of the world's largest builders of
automatic pilots for airplanes; Clarke Electronics of Palm Springs,
California, a pioneer in its field, and the Sperry Gyroscope Division of
Sperry-Rand Corp., of Great Neck, L.I., which is doing important work on
guided missiles and earth satellites, also have scientists investigating
the gravity problem.

USE EUROPEAN EXPERT:Martin Aircraft has just put under contract one of
Europe's leading theoretical authorities on gravity and electromagnetic
fields - Dr. Burkhard Heim of Goettingen University where some of the
outstanding discoveries of the century in aerodynamics and physics have
been made, and Dr. Pascual Jordan of Hamburg University, Max Planck Medal
winner whose recent work called 'Gravity and the Universe' has excited
scientific circles throughout the world.

Dr. Heim, now professor of theoretical physics at Goettingen, and who was a
member of Germany's Bureau of Standards during World War II, is certain
that gravity can be overcome. Dr. Heim lost his eyesight and hearing, and
had both arms blown off at the elbow in a World War II rocket explosion. He
dictates his theories and mathematical calculations to his wife.

Martin Aircraft, at the suggestion of George S. Trimble, its vice-president
in charge of advanced design planning, is building between Washington and
Baltimore a new laboratory for the Research Institute for Advanced Study...
A theoretical investigation of the implications for future gravity research
in the 'United Field Theory' of the late Dr. Albert Einstein is now
underway here.

Although financed by Martin, the Institute will have no connection with the
day-to-day business of building airplanes. Its general manager is Welcome

Up to now no scientist or engineer - so far as is known in the scientific
circles - has produced the slightest alteration in the magnitude or
direction of gravitational 'force' although many cranks and crackpots have
claimed to be able to do this with 'perpetual motion machines.'

NO ACCEPTED THEORY: There is no scientific knowledge or generally accepted
theory about the speed with which it travels across interplanetary space,
making any two material particles or bodies - if free to move - accelerate
toward each other. But the current efforts to understand gravity and
universal gravitation both at sub-atomic level and at the level of the
Universe have the positive backing today of many of America's outstanding

These include Dr. Edward Teller of the University of California, who
received prime credit for developing the hydrogen bomb; Dr. J. Robert
Oppenheimer, director of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton; Dr.
Freeman J. Dyson, theoretical physicist at the Institute, and Dr. John A.
Wheeler, professor of physics at Princeton University who made important
contributions to America's first nuclear fission project.

PURE RESEARCH VIEW: It must be stressed that scientists in this group
approach the problem only from the standpoint of pure research. They refuse
to predict exactly in what directions the search will lead or whether it
will be successful beyond broadening human knowledge generally.

Other top-ranking scientific minds being brought to bear today on the
gravity problem are those of Dr. Vaclav Hlavaty, of the University of
Indiana, who served with Dr. Einstein on the faculty of Charles University
in Prague and later taught advanced mathematics at the Sorbonne in Paris;
and of Dr. Stanley Deser and Dr. Richard Arnowitt of the Princeton
Institute for Advanced Study.

Dr. Hlavaty believes that gravity simply is one aspect of electro-magnetism
- the basis of all cosmic forces - and eventually may be controlled like
light and radio waves.

HOPE TO FIND KEY: Dr. Deser and Dr. Arnowitt are of the opinion that very
recently discovered nuclear and sub-nuclear particles of high energy which
are difficult to explain by any present-day theory, may prove to be the key
that eventually unlocks the mystery. It is their suggestion that the new
particles may prove to be basic gravitational energy which is being
converted continually and automatically in an expanding Universe directly
into the most useful nuclear and electromagnetic forms.' In a recent
scientific paper they point out:

'One of the most hopeful aspects of the problem is that until recently
gravitation could be observed but not experimented on in any controlled
fashion, while now with the advent in the past two years of the new
high-energy accelerators (the Cosmotron and the even more recent Berkeley
Bevatron) the new particles which have been linked with the gravitational
field can be examined and worked with at will .'

An important job of encouraging both pure and applied gravity research in
the United States through annual prizes and seminars as well as, the
summarizing of new research for engineers and scientists in industry
looking forward to a real 'hardware solution' to the gravity problem is
being performed by the Gravity Research Foundation of New Boston, N.H.

This was founded and endorsed by Dr. Roger Babson, economist, who is an
alumnus of M.I.T. and a lifelong student of the works of Sir Isaac Newton,
discoverer of gravity. Its president is Dr. George Rideout of Boston.

(Photo Inset): BLACKBOARD MATH - Dr. Vaclav Hlavaty, of the University of
Indiana's graduate Institute of Advanced Mathematics, who has stimulated
research on gravity control, working on a problem."

(Photo Inset): "ANTI-GRAVITY AND AVIATION - George S. Trimble jr.
vice-president in charge of advanced design planning of Martin Aircraft
Corp., left discussing the application of anti-gravitational research to
aviation with two Martin scientists, J.D. Pierson, centre, and William B.


(a second article will appear tomorrow)

NEW YORK HERALD-TRIBUNE: Monday, November 21, 1955, pp. 1 & 6 "SPACE-SHIP MARVEL SEEN IF GRAVITY IS OUTWITTED" (Photo insert): "FLYING SAUCER OF THE FUTURE? - A reproduction of an oil painting by Eugene M. Gluhareff, president of Gluhareff Helicopter & Airplane Corp. of Manhattan Beach, Calif., showing a 'saucer-shaped' aircraft or space ship for exploring far beyond the earth's atmosphere and gravity field. Mr. Gluhareff portrays it operating at 'moderate speed' over the New York - New England area and notes that in the painting a 'propulsive blast of the electron beams from the rear of the saucer is visible, giving the saucer a translational force,'" "SPEEDS OF THOUSANDS OF MILES AN HOUR WITHOUT A JOLT HELD LIKELY" This is the second in a series on new pure and applied research into the mysteries of gravity and efforts to devise ways to counteract it. written by Ansel E. Talbert, military and Aviation editor, N.Y.H.T. "Scientists today regard the earth as a giant magnet. Many in America's aircraft & electronics industries are excited over the possibility of using its magnetic and gravitational fields as a medium of support for amazing 'flying vehicles' which will not depend on the air for lift. Space ships capable of accelerating in a few seconds to speeds many thousand of miles an hour and making sudden changes of course at these speeds without subjecting their passengers to the so-called 'G-forces' caused by gravity's pull also are envisioned. These concepts are part of a new program to solve the secret of gravity and universal gravitation already in progress in many top scientific laboratories and long-established industrial firms of the nation. NUCLEAR RESEARCH AIDS: Although scientists still know little about gravity and its exact relationship to electromagnetism, recent nuclear research and experiments with 'high energy machines' such as the Brookhaven Cosmotron are providing a flood of new evidence believed to have a bearing on this. William P. Lear, inventor and chairman of the board of Lear, Inc., one of the nation's largest electronics firms specializing in aviation, for months has been going over new developments and theories relating to gravity with his chief scientists and engineers. Mr. Lear in 1950 received the Collier Trophy from the President of the United States 'for the greatest achievement in aviation in America' through developing a light-weight automatic pilot and approach control system for jet fighter planes. He is convinced that it will he possible to create artificial 'electro-gravitational fields whose huge polarity can be controlled to cancel out gravity.' He told this correspondent: 'All the (mass) materials and human beings within these fields will be part of them. They will be adjustable so as to increase or decrease the weight of any object in its surroundings. They won't be affected by the earth's gravity or that of any celestial body. 'This means that if any person was in an anti-gravitational airplane or space ship that carried along its own gravitational field - no matter how fast you accelerated or changed course - your body wouldn't any more feel it than it now feels the speed of the earth.' Scientists and laymen for centuries have been familiar with the phenomena that 'like' poles of two magnets - the north and the north poles for example - repel each other while 'unlike' poles exert an attraction. In ancient times 'lodestones' possessing natural magnetism were thought to possess magical powers. FARADAY'S DISCOVERIES: But the nineteenth century discoveries of England's great scientist, Michael Faraday, paved the way for construction of artificial 'electro-magnets' - in which magnetism is produced by means of electric currents. They retain it only so long as the current is flowing. An electromagnet can be made by winding around a soft iron 'core' - a coil of insulated wire carrying electric current. Its strength depends primarily on the number of turns in the coil rather than the strength of the current. Even today, America's rapidly expanding electronics industry is constantly finding new uses for electromagnets. For example, Jack Fletcher, a young electronics and aeronautical engineer of Covina, Calif., has just built a 'Twenty-First Century Home' containing an electronic stove functioning by magnetic repulsion. PAN FLOATS IN AIR: In it seven coils of wire on laminated iron cores are contained inside a plywood cabinet of blond mahogany. The magnetic field from these coils induces 'eddy currents' in an aluminum cooking pan nineteen inches in diameter, which interact and lift the pan into space like a miniature 'flying saucer.' The cooking pan floats about two inches in the air above the stove in a stabilized condition; 'eddy currents' generate the heat that warms it while the stove top itself remains cold. The aluminum pan will hold additional pots and it can be used as a griddle. It is, of course, a variation of several other more familiar magnetic repulsion gadgets including the 'mysterious floating metal ball' of science hall exhibits. No type of electromagnet known to science or industry would have any application to the building of a real aircraft or 'flying vehicle'. But one of America's most brilliant young experimental designers, Eugene M. Gluhareff, president of Gluhareff Helicopter and Airplane Corp. of Manhattan Beach, Calif., has made several theoretical design studies of round or saucer-shaped 'vehicles' for travel into outer space, having atomic generators as their basic 'engines'. SON OF COPTER DESIGNER: Mr. Gluhareff is the son of Michael E. Gluhareff, chief designer for Dr. Igor I. Sikorsky, helicopter and multi-engined aircraft pioneer. Dr. Sikorsky and the elder Mr. Gluhareff, who has won the Alexander Klemin award, one of aviation's highest honours, are themselves deeply concerned in the problem of overcoming gravitation. The younger Mr. Gluhareff already has been responsible for several successful advanced designs of less amazing "terrestrial" aircraft. He envisions the electric power obtained from the atomic generators operating electronic reactors -'that is, obtaining propulsion by the acceleration of electrons to a very high velocity and expelling them into space in the same manner that hot gases are expelled from jet engines. ' Such an arrangement would not pollute the atmosphere with radioactive vapors. COULD CONTROL ACCELERATION: Because of its 'long-lasting fuel', an atomic-electronic flying disk would be able to control its acceleration to any speed desired and there would be no need for being 'shot into space' according to Mr. Gluhareff. Radial electronic beams around the saucer's rim would be operating constantly and would sustain flight by 'acting against gravity.' Mr. Gluhareff thinks that control can be achieved by a slight differentiation of the deflection of electronic beams in either direction: the beams would act in the same way as an orthodox plane's ailerons and elevator. GRAVITATIONAL CHANGES: Mr. Gluhareff agrees with Dr. Pascual Jordan of Hamburg University, one of Europe's outstanding authorities on gravitation who proved many parts of the 'Quantum Theory' of Dr. Max Planck, that it will be possible to induce substantial changes in the gravitational fields of rotating masses through electromagnetic research. Dr. Jordan has just signed a contract to do research for Martin Aircraft Corp. of Baltimore. Norman V. Peterson guided missiles engineer of the Sperry-Gyroscope Division of Sperry-Rand Corp. of Great Neck, L.I., who as president of the American Astronautical Society attended the recent 'earth satellite' meeting in Copenhagen corroborates the theory that 'nuclear powered - or solar powered - ion electron beam reactors - will give impetus to the conquest of space'. (Photo insert): "FLOATING COOKING PAN - The 'electronic stove' functioning by magnetic repulsion built by Jack Fletcher, a young engineer of West Covina, Calif., The aluminum cooking pan, nineteen inches in diameter, floats two inches above the cabinet like a miniature 'flying saucer'. It is completely stable while 'hovering' and can be used as a griddle or as a holder for additional pots and pans. 'Eddy currents' from a magnetic field created by an electromagnet inside the cabinet have warmed the pan - although the stove top remains completely cold." END ARTICLE TWO (a third article will appear tomorrow)
NEW YORK HERALD-TRIBUNE: Tuesday, November 22, 1955, pp. 6 & 10 "NEW AIR DREAM-PLANES FLYING OUTSIDE GRAVITY" (Photo insert): Lawrence D. Bell, founder and president of Bell Aircraft Corp., of Buffalo, using a Japanese ivory ball to illustrate his view that humans before long will operate planes outside the earth's atmosphere, then outside the gravity field of the earth. The pilots with him, three top test pilots of the Air Force, are, left, Lt. Col. Frank J. Everest; centre, in light suit, Maj. Charles Yeager, and, in uniform next to Mr. Bell, Maj. Arthur Murray." "ABLE TO GO WHERE WE WANT" This is the third in a series of three articles on new pure and applied research into the mysteries of gravity and the efforts to devise ways to overcome it. Written by Ansel E. Talbert, Military and Aviation Editor. N.Y.H.T. "The current interest in America's aircraft and electronics industries in finding whether gravity can be controlled or 'cancelled-out' is not confined to imaginative young graduates of engineering and scientific schools. Some of the two industries' most experienced and highly regarded leaders today are engaged directly or deeply interested in theoretical research relating to gravity and universal gravitation. Their basic aim is eventually to build 'hardware' in the shape of planes, earth satellites, and space ships 'which can go where we want and do what we want without interference from gravity's mysterious trans-spatial pull.' BELL IS OPTIMISTIC: Lawrence D. Bell, whose company in Buffalo built the first piloted aircraft in history to fly faster than sound, is certain that practical results will come out of current gravity research. He told this correspondent: 'Aviation as we know it is on the threshold of amazing new concepts. The United States aircraft industry already is working with nuclear fuels and equipment to cancel out gravity instead of fighting it. 'The Wright Brothers proved that man does not have to be earth-bound. Our next step will be to prove that we can operate outside the earth's atmosphere and the third will be to operate outside the gravity of the earth. OPTIMISM SHARED: Mr. Bell's company during the last few days made the first powered flights with its new Bell X-2 rocket plane designed to penetrate deep into the thermal or heat barrier encountered due to atmospheric fiction at a speed above 2,000 miles per hour. It also is testing a revolutionary new jet vertical-rising-and-landing 'magic carpet' airplane. Grover Loening, who was the first graduate in aeronautics in an American University and the first engineer hired by the Wright Brothers, holds similar views. Over a period of forty years, Mr. Loening has had a distinguished career as an aircraft designer and builder recently was decorated by the United States Air Force for his work as a special scientific consultant. 'I firmly believe that before long man will acquire the ability to build an electromagnetic contra-gravity mechanism that works,' he says. 'Much the same line of reasoning that enabled scientists to split up atomic structures also will enable them to learn the nature of gravitational attraction and ways to counter it.' Right now there is considerable difference of opinion among those working to discover the secret of gravity and universal gravitation as to exactly how long the project will take. George S. Trimble, a brilliant young scientist who is head of the new advanced design division of Martin Aircraft in Baltimore and a member of the sub-committee on high-speed aerodynamics of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, believes that it could be done relatively quickly if sufficient resources and momentum were put behind the program. 'I think we could do the job in about the time that it actually required to build the first atom bomb if enough trained scientific brainpower simultaneously began thinking about and working towards a solution,' he said. 'Actually, the biggest deterrent to scientific progress is a refusal of some people, including scientists, to believe that things which seem amazing can really happen. 'I know that if Washington decides that it is vital to our national survival to go where we want and do what we want without having to worry about gravity, we'd find the answer rapidly.' SIKORSKY CAUTIOUS: Dr. Igor I. Sikorsky, one of the world's outstanding airplane and helicopter designers, is somewhat more conservative but equally interested. He believes that within twenty-five years man will be flying beyond the earth's atmosphere, but he calls gravity, 'real, tangible, and formidable.' It is his considered scientific observation that there must be some physical carrier for this immense trans-spatial force. Dr. Sikorsky notes that light and electricity, once equally mysterious, now have become 'loyal, obedient servants of man. appearing or disappearing at his command and performing at his will a countless variety of services.' But in the case of gravitation he says the more scientists attempt to visualize the unknown agent which transmits it, 'the more we recognize we are facing a deep and real mystery.' The situation calls for intensive scientific research, Dr. Sikorsky believes. Up to now all gravity research in the United States has been financed out of the private funds of individuals or corporations. Leaders of the nation's armed forces have been briefed by various scientists about the theoretical chances of conquering gravitation but so far their attitude is 'call us when you get some hardware that works.' Dudley Clarke, president of Clarke Electronics laboratories of Palm Springs, Calif., one of the nation's oldest firms dedicated to electronic research and experimentation, is one scientist in the hardware stage of building something that he believes will prove gravity can be put to useful purposes. Mr. Clarke's company has just caused a stir in the electronics industry by developing pressure-sensitive resistors having unusual characteristics for parachute and other aviation use, according to 'Teletech and Electronic Industries' magazine of 480 Lexington Ave. Mr. Clarke who years ago worked under Dr. Charles Steinmetz, General Electric Company's electrical and mathematical 'wizard' of the 1930s, is sure that this successful harnessing of gravitation will take place sooner than some of these 'ivy tower' scientists believe. Like Sir Frank Whittle, Britain's jet pioneer who was informed in 1935 by the British Air Ministry that it could see no practical use for his jet aircraft engine, Mr. Clarke has a particularly cherished letter. It was written about the same time by the commanding general at Wright Field giving a similar analysis of a jet design proposal by Mr. Clarke. Mr. Clarke notes that the force of gravity is powerful enough to generate many thousand times more electricity than now is generated at Niagra Falls and every other water-power centre in the world - if it can be harnessed. This impending event, he maintains, will make possible the manufacture of anti-gravity 'power packages' which can be bought for a few hundred dollars. These would provide all the heat and power needed by one family for an indefinite period. Dr. W.R.G. Baker, vice-president and general manager of General Electric Co.'s electronics division, points out that scientists working in many fields actually are beginning to explore the universe, learning new things about the makeup of 'outer space' and formulating new concepts. He says: 'Today we in electronics are deeply interested in what lies beyond the earth's atmosphere and its gravity field. For there we may find the electronics world of what now. Such questions usually have been reserved for the realm of physics and astronomy. But through entirely new applications in radar for example science already is able to measure some of the properties of the world beyond. 'Warm bodies radiate microwaves, and by recording noise signals, we are learning about invisible celestial forces we did not even know existed.' Dr. Arthur L. Klein, professor of aeronautics at the California Institute of Technology, is certain that 'if extra-terrestrial flight is to be achieved, something will be required to replace chemical fuels.' Dr. Hermann Oberth, Germany's greatest rocket pioneer, who is now working on guided missiles for the United States Army, calculates that 40,000 tons of liquid propellents will be required to lift a payload of only two tons beyond the earth's gravitation. Regarding this chemical fuel problem Dr. Klein says, 'there are no other serious obstacles.' Many thoughtful theoretical scientists and practical engineers see a space vehicle de-gravitized to a neutral weight and following an electronically-controlled route charted by radar as the ultimate answer." Conquest of Gravity Aim of Top Scientists in U.S. (Photo insert): "ANTI-GRAVITY RESEARCH - Dr. Charles T. Dozier, left, senior research engineer and guided missiles expert of the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., conducting a research experiment toward control of gravity with Martin Kaplan, Convair Senior electronics engineer." (Photo inset): Artist's conception of a vertical rising, disc-shaped aircraft which could result from a project under development for the U.S. Air Force by Avro Ltd., Canada (Official U.S. Air Force photo).
"Towards Flight - without Stress or Strain... or Weight" By INTEL, WASHINGTON, D.C. The following article is by an American journalist who has long taken a keen interest in questions of theoretical physics and has been recommended to the Editors as having close connections with scientific circles in the United States. The subject is one of immediate interest and Interavia would welcome further comment from initiated sources. --Editors. Washington D. C. - March 23, 1956: Electrogravitics research, seeking the source of gravity and its control, has reached a stage where profound implications for the entire human race begin to emerge. Perhaps the most startling and immediate implications of all involve aircraft, guided missiles -- atmospheric and free space flight of all kinds. If only one of several lines of research achieve their goal -- and it now seems certain that this must occur -- gravitational acceleration as a structural, aerodynamic and medical problem will simply cease to exist. So will the task of providing combustible fuels in massive volume in order to escape the earth's gravitic pull -- now probably the biggest headache facing today's would-be "space men". And towards the long-term progress of mankind and man's civilization, a whole new concept of electrophysics is being levered out into the light of human knowledge. There are gravity research projects in every major country of the world. A few are over 30 years old1. Most are much newer. Some are purely theoretical and seek the answer in Quantum, Relativity and Unified Field Theory mathematics -- Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey; University of Indiana's School of Advanced Mathematical Studies; Purdue University Research Foundation; Goettingen and Hamburg Universities in France, Italy, Japan and elsewhere. The list, in fact, runs into the hundreds. Some projects are mostly empirical, studying gravitic isotopes, electrical phenomena and the statistics of mass. Others combine both approaches in the study of matter in its super-cooled, super-conductive state, of jet electron streams, peculiar magnetic effects or the electrical mechanics of the atom's shell. Some of the companies involved in this phase include Lear Inc., Gluhareff Helicopter and Airplane Corp., The Glenn L. Martin Co., Sperry-Rand Corp., Bell Aircraft, Clarke Electronics Laboratories, the U.S. General Electric Company. The concept of weightlessness in conventional materials which are normally heavy, like steel, aluminium, barium, etc., is difficult enough, but some theories, so far borne out empirically in the laboratory, postulate that not only can they be made weightless, but they can in fact be given a negative weight. That is: the force of gravity will be repulsive to them and they will -- new sciences breed new words and meanings for old ones -- loft away contra-gravitationally. In this particular line of research, the weights of some materials have already been cut as much as 30% by "energizing" them. Security prevents disclosure of what precisely is meant by "energizing" or in which country this work is under way. (photo inset of TT Brown) The American scientist Townsend T. Brown has been working on the problems of electrogravitics for more than thirty years. He is seen here demonstrating one of his laboratory instruments, a disc-shaped variant of the two-plate condenser. A localized gravitic field used as a ponderamotive force has been created in the laboratory. Disc airfoils two feet in diameter and incorporating a variation of the simple two-plate electrical condenser charged with fifty kilovolts and a total continuous energy input of fifty watts have achieved a speed of seventeen feet per second in a circular air course twenty feet in diameter. More lately these discs have been increased in diameter to three feet and run in a fifty-foot diameter air course under a charge of a hundred and fifty kilovolts with results so impressive as to be highly classified. Variations of this work done under a vacuum have produced much greater efficiencies that can only described as startling. Work is now under way developing a flame-jet generator to supply power up to fifteen million volts. Such a force raised exponentially to levels capable of pushing man-carrying vehicles through the air -- or outer space -- at ultrahigh speeds is now the object of concerted effort in several countries. Once achieved it will eliminate most of the structural difficulties now encountered in the construction of high-speed aircraft. Importantly the gravitic field that provides the basic propulsive force simultaneously reacts on all matter within that field's influence. The force is not a physical one acting initially at a specific point in the vehicle that needs then to be translated to all the other parts. It is an electrogravitic field acting on all parts simultaneously. Subject only to the so-far immutable laws of momentum, the vehicle would be able to change direction, accelerate to thousands of miles per hour, or stop. Changes in direction and speed of flight would be effected by merely altering the intensity, polarity and direction of the charge. Man now uses the sledge-hammer approach to high-altitude high-speed flight. In the still-short life-span of the turbo-jet airplane he has had to increase power in the form of brute thrust some twenty times in order to achieve just a little more than twice the speed of the original jet plane. The cost in money in reaching this point has been prodigious. The cost in highly-specialized man-hours is even greater.By his present methods man actually fights in direct combat the forces that resist his efforts. in conquering gravity he would be putting one of his most competent adversaries to work for him. Anti-gravitics is the method of the picklock rather than the sledge-hammer. The communications possibilities of electrogravitics, as the new science is called, confound the imagination. There are apparently in the ether an entirely new unsuspected family of electrical waves similar to electromagnetic radio waves in basic concept. Electrogravitic waves have been created and transmitted through concentric layers of the most efficient kinds of electromagnetic and electrostatic shielding without any apparent loss of power in any way. There is evidence, but not yet proof, that these waves are not limited by the speed of light. Thus the new science seems to strike at the very foundations of Einsteinian Relativity Theory. But rather than invalidating current basic concepts such as Relativity, the new knowledge of gravity will probably expand their scope, ramification and general usefulness. It is this expansion of knowledge into the unknown that more emphasizes how little we do know; how vast is the area still awaiting research and discovery. The most successful line of the electrogravitics research so far reported is that carried on by Townsend. T. Brown, an American who has been researching gravity for over thirty years. He is now conducting research projects in the U.S. and on the Continent. He postulates that there is between electricity and gravity a relationship parallel and/or similar to that which exists between electricity and magnetism. And as the coil is the usable link in the case of electromagnetics, so is the condenser that link in the case of electrogravitics. Years of successful empirical work have lent a great deal of credence to this hypothesis. The detailed implications of man's conquest of gravity are innumerable. In road cars, trains and boats the headaches of transmission of power from the engine to wheels or propellers would simply cease to exist. Construction of bridges and big buildings would be greatly simplified by temporary induced weightlessness, etc. Other facets of work now under way indicate the possibilityof close controls over the growth of plant life; new therapeutic techniques, permanent fuel-less heating units for homes and industrial establishments; new manufacturing techniques; a whole new field of chemistry. The list is endless ... and growing. In the field of international affairs, other than electrogravitics' military significance, what development of the science may do to raw materialare more prone to induced weightlessness than others. These are becoming known as gravitic isotopes: Some are already quite hard to find, but others are common and, for the moment, cheap. Since these ultimately may be the vital lofting materials required in the creation of contra-gravitational fields, their value might become extremely high with equivalent rearrangement of the wealth of natural resources, balance of economic power and world geo-strategic concepts. (photo inset of disc) Townsend Brown's free-flying condenser. If the two arc-shaped electrodes (on the left and right rims) are placed under electrostatic charge, the disc will move, under the influence of interaction between electrical and gravitational fields, in the direction of the positive electrode. the higher the charge, the more marked will be the electrogravitic field. With a charge of several hundred kilovolts the condenser would reach speeds of several hundred miles per hour. (photo inset of drawing) Author's diagram illustrating the electrogravitic field and the resulting force on a disc-shaped electrostatic condenser. The centre of the disc is of solid aluminium. The solid rimming on the sides is perspex, and in the trailing and leading edges (seen in the direction of motion) are wires separated from the aluminium core chiefly by air pockets. The wires act in a manner similar to the two plates of a simple electrical condenser and, when charged, produce a propulsive force. On reaching full charge, a condenser normally loses its propulsive force; but in this configuration the air between the wires is also charged; so that in principle the charging process can be maintained as long as desired. As the disc also moves - from minus to plus - the charged air is left behind, and the condenser moves into new, uncharged air. Thus, both charging process and propulsive force are continuous. (photo inset of sketch) Author's sketch of a supersonic space ship roughly 50 ft. in diameter, whose lift and propulsion are produced by electrogravitic forces. The vehicle is supported by a "lofting cake" L consisting of "gravitic isotopes" of negative weight, and is moved in the horizontal plane by propulsion elements T1 and T2. How soon all this comes about is directly proportional to the effort that is put into it. Surprisingly, those countries normally expected to be leaders in such an advanced field are so far only fooling around. Great Britain, with her Ministry of Supply and the National Physical Laboratory, apparently has never seriously considered that the attempt to overcome and control gravity was worth practical effort and is now scurrying around trying to find out what its all about. The U.S. Department of Defense has consistently considered gravity in the realm of basic theory and has so far only put token amounts of money into research on it. The French, apparently a little more open-minded about such things, have initiated a number of projects, but even these are still on pretty much of a small scale. The same is true throughout most of the world. Most of the work is of a private venture kind, and much is being done in the studies of university professors and in the traditional lofts and basements of badly undercapitalized scientists. But the word's afoot now. And both Government and private interest is growing and gathering momentum with logarithmic acceleration. The day may not be far off when man again confounds himself with his genius; then wonders why it took him so long to recognize the obvious. Of course, there is always a possibility that the unexplained 3% of UFOs, "Unidentified Flying Objects", as the U.S. Air Force calls "flying saucers", are in fact vehicles so propelled, developed already and undergoing proving flights - by whom.... U.S., Britain.... or Russia? However, if this is so, it's the best kept secret since the Manhattan Project, for this reporter has spent over two years trying to chase down work on gravitics and has drawn from Government scientists and military experts the world over only the most blank of stares. This always the way of exploration into the unknown......
INTERAVIA Volume XI - No. 5, 1956, pages 373-374 =========================================== THE GRAVITICS SITUATION December 1956 Gravity Rand Ltd. 66 Sloane Street London S.W. 1 GS page -1- Theme of the science for 1956-1970: SERENDIPITY Einstein's view:- "It may not be an unattainable hope that some day a clearer knowledge of the processes of gravitation may be reached; and the extreme generality and detachment of the relativity theory may be illuminated by the particular study of a precise mechanism". GS page -2- CONTENTS Page I - Engineering note on present frontiers of knowledge . . . . . . . .3 II - Management note on the gravitics situation . . . . . . . . .. .10 III - Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .17 IV - References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 V - Appendix. Appendix I. Summary of Townsend Brown's original specification for an apparatus for producing force or motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appendix II. Mozer's quantum mechanical approach to the existence of negative mass and its utilization in the construction of gravitationally neutralized bodies . . . . . . 30 Appendix III. Gravity effects (Beam's) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Appendix IV. A link between Gravitation and nuclear energy (Deser and,Arnowitt).. 39 Appendix V. Gravity/Heat Interaction Wickenden) . . . . . . . . . .. 41 Appendix VI. Weight-mass anomaly (Perl). . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .42 Thanks to the Gravity Research Foundation for Appendix II - VI I Engineering note on present frontiers of knowledge Gravitics is likely to follow a number of separate lines of development: the best known short term proposition is Townsend Brown's electrostatic propulsion by gravitators (details of which are to be found in the Appendix I). An extreme extrapolation of Brown's later rigs appears to suggest a Mach 3 interceptor type aircraft. Brown called this basically force and motion, but it does not appear to be the road to a gravitational shield or reflector. His is the brute force approach of concentrating high electrostatic charges along the leading edge of the periphery of a disk which yields propulsive effect. Brown originally maintained that his gravitators operate independently of all frames of reference and it is motion in the absolute sense - relative to the universe as a whole. There is however no evidence to support this. In the absence of any such evidence, it is perhaps more convenient to think of Brown's disks as electrostatic propulsion which has its own niche in aviation. Electrostatic disks can provide lift without speed over a flat surface. This could be an important advance over all forms of airfoil which require induced flow; and lift without air flow is a development that deserves to be followed up in its own right, and one that for military purposes is already envisaged by the users as applicable to all three services. This point has been appreciated in the United States and a program in hand may now ensure that development of large sized disks will be continued. This is backed by the U.S. Government but it is something that will be pursued on a small scale. This acceptance follows Brown's original suggestion embodied in Project Winterhaven. Winterhaven recommended that a major effort be concentrated on electrogravitics based on the principle of his disks. The U.S. Government evaluated the disks wrongly, and misinterpreted the nature of the energy. This incorrect report was filed as an official assessment, and it took some three years to correct the GS page -4- earlier misconception. That brings developments up to the fairly recent past. and by that time it was realized that no effort on the lines of Winterhaven was practical, and that more modest aims should be substituted. These were re-written around a new report which is apparently based on newer thoughts and with some later patents not yet published which form the basis of current U.S. policy. It is a matter of some controversy whether this research could be accelerated by more money but the impression in Gravity Rand is that the base of industry is perhaps more than adequately wide. Already companies are specializing in evolution of particular components of an electrogravitics disk. This implies that the science is in the same state as the ICBM - namely that no new breakthroughs are needed, only intensive development engineering. This may be an optimistic reading of the situation: it is true that materials are now available for the condensers giving higher k figures than were postulated in Winterhaven as necessary, and all the ingredients necessary for the disks appear to be available. But industry is still some way from having an adequate power sources and possessing any practical experience of running such equipment. The long term development of gravity shields, absorbers, and 'magic metals' appears at the moment however to be a basically different problem, and work on this is not being sponsored* so far as is known. The absorber or shield could be intrinsically a weapon of a great power, the limits of which are difficult to foresee. The power of the device to undermine the electrostatic forces holding the atom together is a destructive by-product of military significance. In unpublished work Gravity Rand has indicated the possible effect of such a device for demolition. The likelihood of such work being sponsored in small countries outside the U.S. is slight, since there is general lack of money and resources and in all such countries quick returns are essential. * officially, that is GS page -5- Many people hold that little or no progress can be made until the link in the Einstein unified field theory has been found. This is surely a somewhat defeatist view, because although no all embracing explanation of the relationship between the extraordinary variety of high energy particles continually being uncovered is yet available much can be done to pin down the general nature of anti-gravity devices. There are several promising approaches one of them is the search for negative mass, a second is to find a relationship between gravity and heat, and a third is to find the link between gravitation and the coupled particles. Taking the first of these: negative mass, the initial task is to prove the existence of negative mass, and Appendix II outlines how it might be done. This is Mozer's approach which is based on the Schroedinger time independent equation with the center of mass motion removed. As the paper shows, this requires some 100 bev - which is beyond the power of existing particle accelerators: however the present Russian and American nuclear programs envisage 50 bev bevatrons within a few years and at the present rate of progress in the nuclear sciences it seems possible that the existence of negamass will be proved by this method of a Bragg analysis of the crystal structure - or disproved. If negamass is established, the precise part played by the subnuclear particles could be quickly determined. Working theories have been built up to explain how negative masses would be repelled by positive masses and pairs would accelerate gaining kinetic energy until they reach the speed of light and then assume the role of the high energy particles. It has been suggested by Ferrell that this might explain the role of neutrino, but this seems unlikely without some explanation of the spin ascribed to the neutrino. Yet the absence of rest mass or charge of the neutrino makes it especially intriguing. Certainly, further study of the neutrino would be relevant to gravitational problems. If, therefore, the aircraft industry regards anti-gravity as part GS page -6- of its responsibilities it cannot escape the necessity of monitoring high energy physics or the neutrino. There are two aircraft companies definitely doing this; but little or no evidence that most of the others know even what a neutrino is. The relationship between electrical charges and gravitational forces however will depend on the right deductions being drawn from excessively small anomalies.* First clues to such small and hitherto unnoticed effects will come by study of the unified field theory. such effects may be observed in work on the gravithermals, and interacting effect of heat and gravity. Here, at least, there is firmer evidence materials are capable of temperature changes depending on gravity. This, as Beams says, (see Appendix III) is due to results from the alignment of the atoms. Gravity tensions applied across the ends of a tube filled with electrolyte can produce heat or be used to furnish power. The logical extension of this is an absorber of gravity in the form of a flat plate and the gravitative flux acting on it (its atomic and molecular structure, its weight density and form are not, at this stage, clear) would lead to an increase in heat of the mass of its surface and subsurface particles. The third approach is to aim at discovering a connection between nuclear particles and the gravitational field. This also returns to the need for interpreting macroscopic relativistic phenomena at one extreme in terms of microscopic quantum mechanical phenomena at the other. Beaumont in suggesting a solution recalls how early theory established rough and ready assumptions of the characteristics of electron spin before the whole science of the atomic orbital was worked out. These were based on observation and they were used with some effect at a time when data was needed. Similar assumptions of complex spin might be used to link the microscopic to the macroscopic. At any rate, there are some loose ends in complex spin to be tied up, and these could logically he sponsored with some expectation of results by companies wondering how to make a contribution. * See Appendix VI GS page -7- If a real spin or rotation is applied to a planar geoid the gravitational equipotentials can be made less convex, plane or concave. These have the effect of adjusting the intensity of the gravitational field at will which is a requirement for the gravity absorber. Beaumont seemed doubtful whether external power would have to be applied to achieve this. but it seems reasonable to suppose that power could be fed into the system to achieve a beneficial adjustment to the gravitational field, and conventional engineering methods could ensure that the weight of power input services would be more than offset by weightlessness from the spin inducer. The engineering details of this are naturally still in the realms of conjecture; but, at least, it is something that could be worked out with laboratory rigs; and, again, the starting point is to make more accurate observations of small effects. The technique would be to accept any anomalies in nature and from them to establish what would be needed to induce a spin artificially. * * * It has been argued that the scientific community faces a seemingly impossible task in attempting to alter gravity when the force is set up by a body as large as this planet and that to change it might demand a comparable force of similar planetary dimensions. It was scarcely surprising therefore that experience had shown that while it has been possible to observe the effects of gravity it resisted any form of control or manipulation. But the time is fast approaching when for the first time it will be within the capability of engineers with bevatrons to work directly with particles that it, is increasingly accepted, contribute to the source of gravitation; and whilst that in itself may not lead to an absorber of gravity, it will at least throw some light on the sources of the power. GS page -8- Another task is solution* of outstanding equations to convert gravitational phenomena to nuclear energy. The problem, still not yet solved may support the Bondi-Hoyle theory that expansion of the universe represents energy continually annihilated instead of being carried to the boundaries of the universe. This energy loss manifests itself in the behaviour of the hyperon and K-particles which would, or might, form the link between the microcosm and macrocosm. Indeed Deser and Arnowitt propose that the new particles are a direct link between gravitationally produced energy and nuclear energy. If this were so it would be the place to begin in the search for practical methods of gravity manipulation. It would be realistic to assume that the K-particles are such a link. Then a possible approach might be to disregard objections which cannot be explained at this juncture until further unified field links are established. As in the case of the spin and orbital theories, which were naive in the beginning, the technique might have to accept the apparent forces and make theory fit observation until more is known. * * * Some people feel that the chances of finding such a unified field theory to link gravity and electrodynamics are high; yet think that the finding of a gravity shield is slight because of the size of the energy source, and because the chances of seeing unnoticed effects seem slender. Others feel the opposite and believe that a link between nuclear energy and gravitational energy may precede the link between the Einstein general relativistic and Quantum Theory disciplines. Some hope that both discoveries may come together; while a few believe that a partial explanation of both may come about the same time,, which will afford sufficient knowledge of gravitational fields to perfect an interim type of absorber using field links that are available. * See Appendix IV GS page -9- This latter seems the more likely since it is already beginning to happen. There is not likely to be any sudden full explanation of the microcosm and macrocosm; but one strand after another joining them will be fashioned, as progress is made towards quantizing the Einstein theory. GS page -10- II Management note on the Gravitics Situation The present anti-gravity situation as one of watching and waiting by the large aircraft prime contractors for lofting inventions or technological breakthroughs. Clarence Birdseye in one of his last utterances thought that an insulator might be discovered by accident by someone working on a quite different problem; and in 500 years gravity insulators would be commonplace. One might go further than Birdseye and say that principles of the insulator would, by then, be fundamental to human affairs; it would be as basic to the society as the difference today between the weight of one metal and another. But at the same time it would be wrong to infer from Birdseye's remark that a sudden isolated discovery will be the key to the science. The hardware will come at a time when the industry is ready and waiting for it. It will arrive after a long period of getting accustomed to thinking in terms of weightlessness, and naturally it will appear after the feasibility of achieving it in one form or another has been established in theory.* The aim of companies at this stage must therefore surely be to monitor the areas of progress in the world of high energy physics which seem likely to lead to establishment of the foundations of anti-gravity. This means keeping a watchful eye on electrogravitics, magnetogravitics gravitics isotopes; and electrostatics in various forms for propulsion or levitation. This is not at the present stage a very expensive business, and * But this does not mean that harnessed forces will be necessarily fully understood at the outset. GS page -11- investment in laboratory man-hours is necessary only when a certain line of reasoning which may look promising comes to a dead-end for lack of experimental data, or only when it might be worth running some laboratory tests to bridge a chasm between one part of a theory and another or in connecting two or more theories together. If this is right, anti-gravity is in a state similar to nuclear propulsion after the NEPA findings, yet before the ANP project got under way. It will be remembered that was the period when the Atomic Energy Commission sponsored odd things here and there that needed doing. But it would be misleading to imply that hardware progress on electrostatic disks is presently so far along as nuclear propulsion was in that state represented by ANP. True the NEPA men came to the conclusion that a nuclear-propelled aircraft of a kind could be built, but it would be only a curiosity. Even at the time of the Lexington and Whitman reports it was still some way from fruition: the aircraft would have been more than a curiosity but not competitive enough to be seriously considered. It is not in doubt that work on anti-gravity is in the realm of the longer term future. One of the tests of virility of an industry is the extent to which it is so self confident of its position that it can afford to sponsor R&D which cannot promise a quick return. A closing of minds to anything except lines of development that will provide a quick return is a sign of either a strait-laced economy or of a pure lack of prescience, (or both). GS page -12- Another consideration that will play its part in managerial decision is that major turning points in anti-gravity work are likely to prove far removed from the tools of the aircraft engineer. A key instrument for example that may determine the existence of negamass and establish posimass-negamass interaction is the super bevatron. It needs some 100 bev gammas on hydrogen to perform a Bragg analysis of the elementary particle structure by selective reflection to prove the existence of negamass. This value is double as much the new Russian bevatron under construction and it is 15 times as powerful as the highest particle accelerations in the Berkeley bevatron so far attained. Many people think that nothing much can be done until negamass has been observed. If industry were to adopt this approach it would have a long wait and a quick answer at the end. But the negamass-posimass theory can be further developed; and, in anticipation of its existence, means of using it in a gravitationally neutralized body could be worked out. This, moreover, is certainly not the only possible approach: a breakthrough may well come in the interaction between gravitative action and heat theory at the moment suggests that if gravity could produce heat the effect is limited at the moment to a narrow range.* But the significant thing would be establishment of a principle. History may repeat itself thirty years ago, and even as recently as the German attempts to produce nuclear energy in the war, nobody would have guessed that power would be unlocked by an accident at the high end of the atomic table. All prophecies of atomic energy were concerned with how quickly means of fusion could be applied at the low end. In anti-gravity work, and this * See Appendix V GS page -13- goes back to Birdseye, it may be an unrelated accident that will be the means of getting into the gravitational age. It is a prime responsibility of management to be aware of possible ways of using theory to accelerate such a process. In other words serendipity. It is a common thought in industry to look upon the nuclear experience as a precedent for gravity, and to argue that gravitics will similarly depend on the use of giant tools, beyond the capabilities of the air industry and that companies will edge into the gravitational age on the coat-tails of the Government as industry has done, or is doing, in nuclear physics. But this over looks the point that the two sciences are likely to be different in their investment. Itwill not need a place like Hanford or Savannah River to produce a gravity shield or insulator once the knowhow has been established. As a piece of conceptual engineering the project is probably likely to be much more like a repetition of the turbine engine. It will be simple in its essence, but the detailed componentry will become progressively more complex to interpret in the form of a stable flying platform and even more intricate when it comes to applying the underlying principles to a flexibility of operating altitude ranging from low present flight speeds at one extreme to flight in a vacuum at the other. This latter will be the extreme test of its powers. Again the principle itself will function equally in a vacuum - Townsend Brown's saucers could move in a vacuum readily enough - but the supporting parts must also work in a vacuum. In practice, they tend to give trouble, just as gas turbine bits and pieces start giving trouble in proportion to the altitude gained in flight. GS page -14- But one has to see this rise in complexity with performance and with altitude attainment in perspective: eventually the most advanced capability may be attained with the most extremely simple configurations. As is usual however in physics developments the shortest line of progress is a geodesic, which may in turn lead the propulsion trade into many roundabout paths as being the shortest distance between aims and achievement. But aviation business is understandably interested in knowing precisely how to recognize early discoveries of significance and this Gravity Rand report is intended to try and outline some of the more promising lines. One suggestion frequently made is that propulsion and levitation may be only the last - though most important - of a series of others, some of which will have varying degrees of gravitic element in their constitution. It may be that the first practical application will be in the greater freedom of communications offered by the change in wave technique that it implies. A second application is to use the wave technique for anti-submarine detection, either airborne or seaborne. This would combine the width of horizon in search radar with the underwater precision of Magnetic Airborne Detection, and indeed it may have the range of scatter transmissions. Chance discoveries in the development of this equipment may lead to the formulation of new laws which would define the relationship of gravity in terms of usable propulsion symbols. Exactly how this would happen nobody yet knows and what industry and government can do at this stage is to explore all the possible applications simultaneously, putting pressure where results seem to warrant it. GS page -15- In a paper of this kind it is not easy to discuss the details of the wave technique in communications, and the following are some of theories, briefly stated which require no mathematical training to understand, which it would be worth management keeping an eye on. In particular, watch should be made of quantitative tests on lofting, and beneficiation of material. Even quite small beneficiation ratios are likely to be significant. There are some lofting claims being made of 20% and more, and the validity of these will have to be weighed carefully. Needless to say much higher ratios than this will have to be attained. New high-k techniques and extreme-k materials are significant. High speeds in electrostatic propulsion of small discs will be worth keeping track of (by high speed one means hundreds of m.p.h.) and some of these results are beginning to filter through for general evaluation. Weight mass anomalies, new oil-cooled cables, interesting megavolt gimmicks, novel forms of electrostatic augmentation with, hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon fuels are indicative, new patents under the broadest headings of force and motion may have value, new electrostatic generator inventions could tip the scales and unusual ways of turning condensers inside-out, new angular propulsion ideas for barycentric control; and generally certain types of saucer configuration are valuable pointers to ways minds are working. Then there is the personnel reaction to such developments. Managements are in the hands of their technical men, and they should beware of technical teams who are dogmatic at this state. To assert electrogravitics is nonsense; is as unreal as to say it is practically extant. Management should be careful of men in their employ with a closed mind - or even partially closed mind - on the subject. GS page -16- This is a dangerous age: when not only is anything possible, but it is possible quickly. A wise Frenchman once said you have only to live long enough to see everything 'and the reverse of everything;' and that is true in dealing with very advanced high energy physics of this kind. Scientists are not politicians: they can reverse themselves once with acclaim - twice even with impunity. They may have to do so in the long road to attainment of this virtually perfect air vehicle. It is so easy to get bogged down with problems of the present; and whilst policy has to be made essentially with the present in mind - and in aviation a conservative policy always pays - it is management's task and duty to itself to look as far ahead as the best of its technicians in assessing the posture of the industry. GS page -17- GLOSSARY Gravithermals: alloys which may be heated or cooled by gravity waves. (Lover's definition) Thermisters: materials capable of being influenced by gravity. Electrads: materials capable of being influenced by gravity. Gravitator: a plurality of cell units connected in series: negative and positive electrodes with an interposed insulating member (Townsend Brown's definition). Lofting: the action of levitation where gravity's force is more than overcome by electrostatic or other propulsion. Beneficiation: the treatment of an alloy or substance to leave it with an improved mass-weight ratio. Counterbary: this, apparently, is another name for lofting. Barycentric control: the environment for regulation of lofting processes in a vehicle. Modulation: the contribution to lofting conferred on a vehicle by, treatment of the substance of its construction as distinct from that added to it by outside forces. Lofting is a synthesis of intrinsic and extrinsic agencies. Absorber; insulator: these terms - there is no formal distinction between them as yet - are based on an analogy with electromagnetism. This is a questionable assumption since the similarity between electromagnetic and gravitational fields is valid only in some respects such as both having electric and magnetic elements. But the difference in coupling strengths, noted by many experimenters, is fundamental to the science. Gravity moreover may turn out to be the only non-quantized field in nature, which would make it, basically, unique. The borrowing GS page -18- of terms from the field of electromagnetism is therefore only a temporary convenience. Lack of Cartesian representation makes this a baffling science for many people. Negamass: proposed mass that inherently has a negative charge. Posimass: mass the observed quantity - positively charged. Shield: a device which not only opposes gravity (such as an absorber) but also furnishes an essential path along which or through which, gravity can act. Thus whereas absorbers reflectors and insulators can provide a gravitationally neutralized body, a shield would enable a vehicle or sphere to 'fall away' in proportion to the quantity of shielding material. Screening: gravity screening was implied by Lanczos. It is the result of any combination of electric or magnetic fields in which one or both elements are not subject to varying permeability in matter. Reflector: a device consisting of material capable of generating buoyant forces which balance the force of attraction. The denser the material, the greater the buoyancy force. When the density of the material equals the density of the medium the result will be gravitationally neutralized. A greater density of material assumes a lofting role. Electrogravitics: the application of modulating influences in an electrostatic propulsion system Magnetogravitics: the influence of electromagnetic and meson fields in a reflector. Bosun fields: these are defined as gravitational electromagnetic, and r meson fields (Metric tensor). Fermion fields: these are electrons neutrinos muons nucleons and V-particles (Spinors). GS page -19- Gravitator cellular body: two or more gravitator cells connected in series within a body (Townsend Brown's definition) GS page -20- REFERENCES Mackenzie, Physical Review. 2. pp 321-43. Eotvos, Pekar and Fekete Annalen der Physik. 68. (1922) pp. 11-16. Heyl, Paul R. Scientific Monthly, 47, (1938) p. 115. Austin, Thwing, Physical Review, 5, (1897) pp. 494-500. Shaw, Nature (April 8,1922), p. 462, Proc. Roy. Soc., 102 (Oct. 6, 1922), p. 46. Brush, Physical Review, 31, p. 1113 (A). Wold, Physical Review, 35, p. 296 (abstract). Majorana, Attidella Reale Academie die Lincei, 28, (1919) pp. 160, 221, 313, 416, 480, 29, (1920), pp. 23, 90, 163, 235 Phil. Mag., 39 ( 1920) p. 288. Schneiderov, Science, (May 7, 1943), 97 sup. p. 10. Brush, Physical Review, 32 p. 633 (abstract). Lanczos, Science, 74, (Dec 4, 1931), sup. p. 10. Eddington, Report on the Relativity Theory of Gravitation, (1920), Fleetway Press, London. W.D. Fowler et al, Phys, Rev. 93, 861, (1954). R.L. Arnowitt and S. Deser, Phys. Rev. 92, 1061, (1953). R. L. Arnowitt Bull , ,A.P.S. 94 798, (1954) S. Deser, Phys. Rev. 93, 612, (1954). N. Schein D.M. Haskin and R.G. Glasser, Phys. Rev. 95, 855, (1954). R.L. Arnowitt & S. Deser unpublished, Univ. of California Radiation Laboratory Report, (1954) H. Bondi and T. Gold, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 108, 252, (1948). F. Hoyle, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 108, 372, (1948). B.S. DeWitt, New Directions for Research in the Theory of Gravitation, Essay on Gravity, 1953. C. H. Bondi, Cosmology, Cambridge University Press, 1952. GS page -21- F.A.E. Pirani and A. Schild, Physical Review 79, 986 (1950). Bergman, Penfield, Penfield, Schiller and Zatzkis, Physical Review, 80, 81 (1950). B.S. DeWitt, Physical Review 85, 653 (1952). See, for example, D. Bohm, Quantum Theory, New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1951) Chapter 22. B.S. DeWitt, Physical Review. 90, 357 (1953), and thesis (Harvard, 1950). A. Pais, Proceedings of the Lorentz Kamerlingh Onnes Conference, Leyden, June 1953. For the treatment of spinors in a unified field theory see W. Pauli, Annalen der Physik, 18, 337 (1933). See also B.S. DeWitt and C.M. DeWitt, Physical Review, 87, 116 (1952). The Quantum Mechanical Electromagnetic Approach to Gravity F.L. Carter Essay on Gravity 1953. On Negative mass in the Theory of Gravitation Prof. J.M. Luttinger Essay on Gravity 1951. GS page -22- Appendix I (of the Gravitics Situation) SUMMARY OF TOWNSEND BROWN'S ORIGINAL PATENT SPECIFICATION A Method of and an Apparatus or Machine for Producing Force or motion. This invention relates to a method of controlling gravitation and for deriving power therefrom, and to a method of producing linear force or motion. The method is fundamentally electrical. The invention also relates to machines or apparatus requiring electrical energy - that control or influence the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation; also to machines or apparatus requiring electrical energy that exhibit a linear force or motion which is believed to be independent of all frames of reference save that which is at rest relative to the universe taken as a whole, and said linear force or motion is furthermore believed to have no equal and opposite reaction that can be observed by any method commonly known and accepted by the physical science to date. Such a machine has two major parts A and B. These parts may be composed of any material capable of being charged electrically. Mass A and mass B may be termed electrodes A and B respectively. Electrode A is charged negatively with respect to electrode B, or what is substantially the same, electrode B is charged positively with respect to electrode A, or what is usually the case, electrode A has an excess of electrons while electrode B has an excess of protons. While charged in this manner the total force of A toward B is the sum of force g (due to the normal gravitational field), and GS page -23- force e (due to the imposed electrical field) and force x (due to the resultant of the unbalanced gravitational forces caused by the electro-negative charge or by the presence of an excess of electrons of electrode A and by the electro-positive charge or by the presence of an excess of protons on electrode B). By the cancellation of similar and opposing forces and by the addition of similar and allied forces the two electrodes taken collectively possess a force 2x in the direction of B. This force 2x, shared by both electrodes, exists as a tendency of these electrodes to move or accelerate in the direction of the force, that is, A toward B and B away from A. Moreover any machine or apparatus possessing electrodes A and B will exhibit such a lateral acceleration or motion if free to move. In this Specification I have used terms as 'gravitator cells' and 'gravitator cellular body' which are words of my own coining in making reference to the particular type of cell I employ in the present invention. Wherever the construction involves the use of a pair of electrodes, separated by an insulating plate or member, such construction complies with the term gravitator cells, and when two or more gravitator cells are connected in series within a body, such will fall within the meaning of gravitator cellular body. The electrodes A and B are shown as having placed between them an insulating plate or member C of suitable material, such that the minimum number of electrons or ions may successfully penetrate it. This constitutes a cellular gravitator consisting of one gravitator cell. GS page -24- It will be understood that, the cells being spaced substantial distances apart, the separation of adjacent positive and negative elements of separate cells is greater than the separation of the positive and negative elements of any cell and the materials of which the cells are formed being the more readily affected by the phenomena underlying my invention than the mere space between adjacent cells, any forces existing between positive and negative elements of adjacent cells can never become of sufficient magnitude to neutralize or balance the force created by the respective cells adjoining said spaces. The uses to which such a motor, wheel or rotor may be put are practically limitless, as can be readily understood, without further description. The structure may suitably be called a gravitator motor of cellular type. In keeping with the purpose of my invention an apparatus may employ the electrodes A and B within a vacuum tube. Electrons, ion, or thermions can migrate readily from A to B. The construction may be appropriately termed an electronic, ionic, or thermionic gravitator as the case may be. In certain of the last named types of gravitator units it is desirable or necessary to heat to incandescence the whole or a part of electrode A to obtain better emission of negative thermions or electrons or at least to be able to control that emission by variation in the temperature of said electrode A. Since such variations also influence the magnitude of the longitudinal force or acceleration exhibited by the tube, it proves to be a very convenient method of varying this effect and of electrically controlling the motion of the tube. GS page -25- The electrode A may be heated to incandescence in any convenient way as by the ordinary methods utilizing electrical resistance or electrical induction. Moreover, in certain types of the gravitator units, now being considered it is advantageous or necessary also to conduct away from the anode or positive electrode B excessive heat that may be generated during the operation. Such cooling is effected externally by means of air or water cooled flanges that are in thermo connection with the anode, or it is effected internally by passing a stream of water, air, or other fluid through a hollow anode made especially for that purpose. The gravitator motors may be supplied with the necessary electrical energy for the operation and resultant motion thereof from sources outside and independent of the motor itself. In such instances they constitute external or independently excited motors. On the other hand, the motors when capable of creating sufficient power to generate by any method whatsoever all the electrical energy required therein for the operation of said motors are distinguished by being internal or self-excited. Here it will be understood that the energy created by the operation of the motor may at times be vastly in excess of the energy required to operate the motor. In some instances the ratio may be even as high as a million to one. Inasmuch as any suitable means for supplying the necessary electrical energy, and suitable conducting means for permitting the energy generated by the motor to exert the expected influence on the same may be readily supplied, it is now deemed necessary to illustrate details herein. In said self-excited motors the energy necessary to overcome the friction or other resistance in the physical structure of the apparatus, and even to accelerate the motors against such resistance, is believed to be derived GS page -26- solely from the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation. Furthermore, said acceleration in the self excited gravitator motor can be harnessed mechanically so as to produce usable energy or power, said usable energy or power, as aforesaid, being derived from or transferred by the apparatus solely from the energy of gravitation. `The gravitator motors function as a result of the mutual and unidirectional forces exerted by their charged electrodes. The direction of these forces and the resultant motion thereby produced are usually toward the positive electrode. This movement is practically linear. It is this primary action with which I deal. As has already been pointed out herein, there are two ways in which this primary action can accomplish mechanical work. First, by operating in a linear path as it does naturally, or second, by operating in a curved path. Since the circle is the most easily applied of all the geometric figures, it follows that the rotary form is the important. There are three general rules to follow in the construction of such motors. First, the insulating sheets should be as thin as possible and yet have a relatively high puncture voltage. It is advisable also to use paraffin saturated insulators on account of their high specific resistance. Second, the potential difference between any two metallic plates should be as high as possible and yet be safely under the minimum puncture voltage of the insulator. Third, there should in most cases be as many plates as possible in order that the saturation voltage of the system might be raised well above the highest voltage limit upon which the motor is operated. GS page -27- Reference has previously been made to the fact that in the preferred embodiment of the invention herein disclosed the movement is towards the positive electrode. However, it will be clear that motion may be had in a reverse direction determined by what I have just termed 'saturation voltage' by which is meant the efficiency peak or maximum of action for that particular type of motor; the theory, as I may describe it, being that as the voltage is increased the force or action increases to a maximum which represents the greatest action in a negative to positive direction. If the voltage were increased beyond that maximum the action would decrease to zero and thence to the positive to negative direction. The rotary motor comprises, broadly speaking, an assembly of a plurality of linear motors fastened to or bent around the circumference of a wheel. In that case the wheel limits the action of the linear motors to a circle, and the wheel rotates in the manner of a fireworks pin wheel. I declare that what I claim is 1. A method of producing force or motion, which comprises the step of aggregating the predominating gravitational lateral or linear forces of positive and negative charges which are so co-operatively related as to eliminate or practically eliminate the effect of the similar and opposing forces which said charges exert. 2. A method of producing force or motion, in which a mechanical or structural part is associated with at least two electrodes or the like, of which the adjacent electrodes or the like have charges of differing characteristics, the resultant, predominating, uni-directional gravitational force of said electrodes or the like being utilized to produce linear force or motion of said part. GS page -28- 3. A method according to Claim 1 or 2, in which the predominating force of the charges or electrodes is due to the normal gravitational field and the imposed electrical field. 4. A method according to Claim 1, 2 or 3 in which the electrodes or other elements bearing the charges are mounted, preferably rigidly, on a body or support adapted to move or exert force in the general direction of alignment of the electrodes or other charge-bearing elements. 5. A machine or apparatus for producing force or motion, which includes at least two electrodes or like elements adapted to be differently charged, so relatively arranged that they produce a combined linear force or motion in the general direction of their alignment. 6. A machine according to Claim 5 in which the electrodes or like elements are mounted, preferably rigidly on a mechanical or structural part, whereby the predominating uni-directional force obtained from the electrodes or the like is adapted to move said part or to oppose forces tending to move it counter to the direction in which it would be moved by the action of the electrodes or the like. 7. A machine according to Claim 5 or 6 in which the energy necessary for charging the electrodes or the like is obtained either from the electrodes themselves or from an independent source. 8. A machine according to Claim 5, 6 or 7, whose force action or motive power depends in part on the gravitational field or energy of gravitation which is controlled or influenced by the action of the electrodes or the like. GS page -29- 9. A machine according to any of Claims 3 to 8, in the form of a motor including a gravitator cell or a gravitator cellular body, substantially as described. 10. A machine according to Claim 9, in which the gravitator, cellular body or an assembly of the gravitator cells is mounted on a wheel-like support, whereby rotation of the latter may be effected, said cells being of electronic, ionic or thermionic type. 11. A method of controlling or influencing the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation and for deriving energy or power therefrom comprising the use of at least two masses differently electrically charged, whereby the surrounding gravitational field is affected or distorted by the imposed electrical field surrounding said charged masses, resulting in a unidirectional force being exerted on the system of charged masses in the general direction of the alignment of the masses, which system when permitted to move in response to said force in the above mentioned direction derives and accumulates as the result of said movement usable energy or power from the energy of gravitation or the gravitational field which is so controlled, influenced, or distorted. 12. The method of and the machine or apparatus for producing force or motion by electrically controlling or influencing the gravitational field or energy of gravitation. GS page -30- Appendix II (of the Gravitics Situation) A Quantum Mechanical Approach to the Existence of Negative Mass and Its Utilization in the Construction of Gravitationally Neutralized Bodies Since the overwhelming majority of electrostatic quantum mechanical effects rely for their existence on an interplay of attractive and repulsive forces arising from two types of charge, few if any fruitful results could come from a quantum mechanical investigation of gravity, unless there should be two types of mass. The first type, positive mass; (hereafter denoted as posimass) retains all the properties attributed to ordinary mass, while the second type, negative mass (hereafter denoted as negamass) differs only in that its mass is an inherently negative quantity. By considering the quantum mechanical effects of the existence of these two types of mass, a fruitful theory of gravity will be developed. Theory will explain why negamass has never been observed, and will offer a theoretical foundation to experimental methods of detecting the existence of negamass and utilizing it in the production of gravitationally neutralized bodies. To achieve these results, recourse will be made to Schroedinger's time independent equation with the center of mass motion removed. This equation is: -h2/22+V = E where all symbols represent the conventional quantum mechanical quantities. Particular attention will be paid to the reduced mass =(m1m2)/(m1+m2) where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two interacting bodies. GS page -31- One can approach the first obstacle that any theory of negamass faces, namely the explanation of why negamass has never been observed, by a consideration of how material bodies would be formed if a region of empty space were suddenly filled with many posimass and negamass quanta. To proceed along these lines, one must first understand the nature of the various possible quantum mechanical interactions of posimass and negamass. Inserting the conventional gravitational interaction potential into Schroedinger's equation and solving for the wave function , yields the result that the probability of two posimass quanta being close together is greater than the probability of their being separated. Hence, there is said to be an attraction between pairs of posimass quanta. By a similar calculation it can be shown that while the potential form is the same two negamass quanta repel each other. This arises from the fact that the reduced mass term in Schroedinger's equation is negative in this latter case. The type of negamass posimass interaction is found to depend on the relative sizes of the masses of the interacting posimass and negamass quanta, being repulsive if the mass of the negamass quantum is greater in absolute value than the mass of the posimass quantum, and attractive in the opposite case. If the two masses are equal in absolute value the reduced mass is infinite and Schroedinger's equation reduces to (V - E) - 0. Since the solution - 0 is uninteresting physically, it must be concluded that V - E, and, hence, there is no kinetic energy of relative motion. Thus, while there is an interaction potential between the equal mass posimass and negamass quanta, it results in no relative acceleration and thus, no mutual attraction or repulsion while much could be said about the philosophical implications of the contradiction between this result and Newton's Second Law, such discussion is out of the scope of the present paper, and the author shall, instead, return with the above series of derivations to a consideration of the construction of material bodies in a region suddenly filled with many posimass and negamass quanta. GS page -32- Because of the nature of the posimass-posimass and negamass-negamass interactions, the individual posimass quanta soon combine into small posimass spheres, while nothing has, as yet, united any negamass quanta. Since it is reasonable to assume that a posimass sphere weighs more than a negamass quantum in absolute value, it will attract negamass quanta and begin to absorb them. This absorption continues until the attraction between a sphere and the free negamass quanta becomes zero due to the reduced mass becoming infinite. The reduced mass becomes infinite when the sphere absorbs enough negamass quanta to make the algebraic sum of the masses of its component posimass and negamass quanta equal to the negative of the mass of the next incoming negamass quantum. Thus the theory predicts that all material bodies after absorbing as many negamass quanta as they can hold, weigh the same very small amount, regardless of size. Since this prediction is in violent disagreement with experimental fact, one must conclude that the equilibrium arising as a result of the reduced mass becoming infinite has not yet been reached. That is, assuming that negamass exists at all, there are not enough negamass quanta present in the universe to allow posimass spheres to absorb all the negamass they can hold. One is thus able to explain the experimental fact that negamass has never been observed by deriving the above mechanism in which the smaller amounts of negamass that may be present in the universe are strongly absorbed by the greater amounts of posimass producing bodies composed of both posimass and negamass, but which have a net positive, variable, total mass GS page -33- Having thus explained why negamass has never been observed in the pure state, it is next desirable to derive an experimental test of the existence of negamass through considering the internal quantum mechanical problem of small amounts of negamass in larger posimass spheres. One is able to gain much physical insight into this problem by simplifying it to the qualitatively similar problem of one negamass quantum in the field of two posimass quanta that are fixed distance apart. Further simplification from three dimensions to one dimension and replacement of the posimass quanta potentials by square barriers, yields a solution in which the ground state energy E0 of the negamass quantum in the field of one posimass quantum, is split into two energy levels in the field of the two posimass quanta. These two levels correspond to even and odd parity solutions of the wave equation where Eeven lies higher and Eodd lower than E0. The magnitudes of the differences Eeven-E0 and E0-Eodd depend on the separation distance between the two posimass quanta, being zero for infinite separation and increasing as this separation distance is decreased. Since the energy of a system involving negamass tends to a maximum in the most stable quantum mechanical configuration, the negamass quantum will normally be in state Eeven. When the system is excited into state Eodd, the negamass quantum will favor the situation in which the two posimass quanta are as far apart as possible, since Eodd increases with increasing separation distance between the two posimass quanta, and the system tends toward the highest energy state. Thus independent of and in addition to the attractive posimass posimass gravitational interaction, there is a repulsive quantum mechanical exchange interaction between pairs of posimass quanta when the system is in state Eodd. The result of these two oppositely directed interactions is that the two posimass quanta are in stable equilibrium at some separation distance. GS page -34- Since this equilibrium occurs between all posimass pairs in an elementary particle, a necessary consequence of the existence of negamass is that when in the first excited state elementary particles have a partial crystal structure. This theoretical conclusion is capable of experimental verification by performing a Bragg analysis of the elementary particle crystal structure through shining high energy gamma rays on hydrogen. Part of the gamma ray energy will be utilized in lowering the system from energy Eeven to Eodd, and if selective reflection is observed, it will constitute a striking verification of the existence of negamass. An order of magnitude calculation shows that, if the equilibrium distance between pairs of posimass quanta is one one-millionth the radius of an electron, 100 bev gamma rays will be required to perform this experiment. Having discussed why negamass has never been observed, and having derived an experimental test of its existence it is next desirable to develop an experimental method of utilizing negamass in the production of gravitationally neutralized bodies by further consideration of some ideas previously advanced. It has been pointed out that if a source of negamass is present, aposimass sphere continues to absorb negamass quanta until equilibrium is reached as a result of the reduced mass becoming infinite. Because the sphere thus produced is practically massless and because the gravitational interaction between two bodies is proportional to the product of their respective masses, it follows that the sphere is practically unaffected by the presence of other bodies. And thus, the problem of making gravitationally neutralized bodies is reduced to the problem of procuring a source of negamass quanta. This will be the next problem discussed. The binding energy of a negamass quantum in a posimass sphere GS page -35- may be obtained as one of the eigenvalue solutions to Schroedinger's Equation. If the negamass quanta in a body are excited to energies in excess of this binding energy by shining sufficiently energetic gamma rays on the body these negamass quanta will be emitted and negamass source will thus be obtained. To estimate the gamma ray energy required to free a negamass quantum from a posimass body, certain assumptions must be made concerning the size and mass of posimass and negamass quanta. Since these quantities are extremely indefinite, and since the whole theory is at best qualitative, attempting to estimate the energy would be a senseless procedure. Suffice it to say that because of the intimate, sub-elementary particle nature of the posimass-negamass interaction, it seems reasonable to assume that quite energetic gamma rays will be required to break this strong bond. To briefly review what has been shown a quantum mechanical theory of negamass has been developed based on the assumptions that gravitational interactions obey the laws of quantum mechanics and that all possible interactions of negamass and posimass with themselves and each other follow the well known inverse square law. This theory explains the experimental fact that negamass has never been observed, and outlines plausible experimental methods of determining the existence of negamass and utilizing it in the construction of gravitationally neutralized bodies. While these experimental methods may perhaps be out of the realm of practicality at the present, there is every reason to hope that they will be performable in the future. At that time, the plausibility of the existence of negamass and the theory behind the construction of gravitationally neutralized bodies from it, will meet their final tests. GS page -36- SUMMARY PARAGRAPH A quantum mechanical theory of negative mass is developed, based on the assumptions that gravitational interactions obey the laws of quantum mechanics, and that all possible interactions of negative and positive mass with themselves and each other follow the well-known inverse square law. This theory explains the experimental fact that negative mass has never been observed, and outlines plausible experimental methods of determining the existence of negative mass and utilizing it in the construction of gravitationally neutralized bodies. Prof. F. Mozer GS page -37- Appendix III (of the Gravitics Situation) GRAVITY EFFECTS The order of magnitude of the heat given off by an alloy as a result of the separation by gravity tension can be reliably estimated. Suppose we assume that an alloy of half tin and half lead completely fills a tube 5 meters long and 100 cm2 cross section which is maintained accurately at a temperature 277 C. At this temperature the alloy is liquid suppose next that the tube is raised from a horizontal plane into a vertical position, i.e. to a position where its length is parallel to the direction of gravity. If, then, the alloy is free from convection as it would be if it is maintained at uniform temperature and if it is held in this position for several months, the percentage of tin at the bottom of the tube will decrease while the relative amount at the top will increase. A simple calculation shows that the concentration of tin at the top is about one tenth of one percent greater than at the bottom and that approximately one calorie of heat is given off in the separation progress. If after several months the tube is again placed so that its length is in a horizontal plane the tin and lead will remix due to the thermal agitation of the atoms and heat is absorbed by the alloy. Another interesting effect occurs when an electrolyte is subjected to gravity tension. Suppose a five meter glass tube is filled with a water solution of say barium chloride and the electrical potential between its ends is measured first when the length of the tube is parallel to the horizontal and second when its length is vertical. The difference in potential between the two ends is practically zero when the tube is horizontal and approximately eighty five microvolts when it is vertical. GS page -38- This effect was discovered by Des Coudres in 1892. If a resistor is attached across the ends when the tube is vertical, heat of course is produced. If the tube is maintained at constant temperature the voltage decreases with time and eventually vanishes. The effect is believed to result from the fact that the positively charged barium ions settle faster than the lighter negatively charged chlorine ions as a result of gravity tension. In conclusion, we have seen that gravity tension effects an alloy in such a way that it gives off heat. This phenomenon results from the alignment of the atoms and from their separation by the gravitational field, the contribution of the latter being larger than that of the former. Also, the gravity tension sets up a potential across the ends of a tube filled with an electrolyte and this potential when applied across an external circuit may produce heat or drive an electric motor to furnish power. Several other small thermal effects possibly may arise from gravity tension in addition to those discussed above but space is not available to consider them in this essay. Also, studies of the effect of gravitational fields and their equivalent centrifugal fields upon matter will no doubt be of great value in the future. J.W. Beams GS page -39- Appendix IV (of the Gravitics Situation) LINK BETWEEN GRAVITATION AND NUCLEAR ENERGY by Dr Stanley Deser and Dr Richard Arnowitt Quantitatively we propose the following field equations: -kTuv = Ruv +.5Rguv + Cuv(؟) (.5uju + m + LPuvKuv(X)) = 0 with a similar equation for . In the above, represents the hyperon wave functions and the K-particle quantized field operators. The first three terms in the first equation are the usual structures in the Einstein General Relativity. The last term, Cuv is the "creation" tensor which is to give us our conversion from gravitational to nuclear energy. It is like Tuv in being an energy momentum term. In the second equation ju represents the covariant derivative while u is a generalized Dirac matrix arranged so that the second equation is indeed covariant under the general group of coordinate transformations. The PuvKuv term will automatically include the higher hyperon levels. Cuv is a functional of the hyperon and K-field variables and . As can be seen these equations are coupled in two ways first the creation term Cuv depends upon the field variables and while the gravitational metric tensor guv enters through the covariant derivative etc. L is a new universal constant giving the scale of the level spacings of the hyperons. Rigorously speaking the field equations should be, of course, second quantized. For purposes of obtaining a workable first approximation it is probably adequate to take expectation values and solve the semi classical equations. The creation tensor Cuv must be a bilinear integral of the and fields and may have cross terms as well of the form ؟(dx). These equations GS page -40- will indeed be difficult to solve; but upon solution will give the distribution of created energy and, hence, lead eventually to the more practical issues desired. GS page -41- Appendix V (of the Gravitics Situation) GRAVITY/HEAT INTERACTION Let us suppose that we have to investigate the question whether gravitative action alone upon some given substance or alloy can produce heat. We do not specify its texture, density nor atomic structure; we assume simply the flux of gravitative action followed by an increase of heat in the alloy. If we assume a small circular surface on the alloy, then the gravitative flux on it may be expressed by Gauss' theorem and it is 4M,where M represents mass of all sub-surface particles; the question is, can this expression be transformed into heat. We will assume it can be. Now recalling the relativity law connecting mass and energy: M = m0 + T/c2 (by Einstein) where:- T = Kinetic energy m = Initial mass c = Velocity of Light we set 4M = m0 +T/c2 = m0 + (m0v2)/2c2 But v2/c2 is a proper fraction: hence M = m0 + m0/2k In the boundary case v=c, M=m0(1+1/k) for all other cases 4M=m0((k+1)/k)k k0. Strictly M should be preceded by a conversion factor 1/k but if inserted, it does not alter results. Thus if gravity could produce heat, the effect is limited to a narrow range, as this result shows. It merits stress that in a gravitational field the flow lines lines of descent -- are Geodesics. J.W. Wickenden GS page -4 2- Appendix VI (of the Gravitics Situation) WEIGHT-MASS ANOMALY There is a great need for a precise experimental determination of the weight to mass ratio of protons or electrons. Since the ratio for a proton plus an electron is known already, the determination of the ratio for either particle is sufficient. The difficulty of a direct determination of the gravitational deflection of a charged particle in an experiment similar to the neutron or neutral atom experiment is due to electrical forces being much greater than gravitational forces. For example, one electron five meters away from a second electron exerts as much force on that second electron as the gravitational field does. Thus stray electrons or ions which are always present on the walls of an apparatus can exert sufficient force to completely mask the gravitational force. Even if the surface charges are neglected, image charges of the electron beam itself and self repulsion in the beam may obscure the gravitational deflection. An additional problem is the Earth's magnetic field. Electrons of even a few volts energy will feel a force due to the Earth's field a thousand billion times larger than the gravitational deflection. This last problem is avoided in a static measurement of the ratio such as a weighing of ionised matter. However, this last method has the additional difficulty of requiring a high proportion of ionized to unionized matter in the sample being weighed. Of course all these problems can be resolved to some extent; but it is questionable if an experiment of either of the above types can be designed in which all the adverse effects can simultaneously be sufficiently minimized. Probably a completely new type of experiment will have to be devised to measure the weight to mass ratio of the proton or electron. GS page -43- Such a measurement may detect a deviation from the law of constant weight to mass ratio. If such an anomaly can be shown to exist there is the possibility of finding a material which would be acted upon in an unusual manner in a gravitational field. Martin L. Perl. 1. Ultimately, they go back to Einstein's general theory of relativity (1916), in which the law of gravitation was first mathematically formulated as a field theory (in contrast to Newton's "action-at-a-distance" concept).

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May 23, 1997.