ONE KILOWATT COLD FUSION REACTOR DEMONSTRATED *
One Kilowatt Cold Fusion Reactor Demonstrated (December 5-7, 1995)
by Jed Rothwell, Contributing Editor, Infinite Energy Magazine
[Included on the INE Web Site with formal permission.]
Ende letzten Jahres konnte die amerikanische Firma "Clean Energy Technologies, Inc." (CETI) aus Dallas, Texas, einen elektrolytischen Leichtwasser-Kaltfusions-reaktor vorstellen, der wesentlich mehr Ausgangsenergie produzierte als zum Betrieb erforderlich war. Im Laufe der Tests wurden Ausgangs-/Eingangs-Faktoren zwischen 1000:1 und 4000:1 gemessen. Zur prazisen Erfassung der erzeugten Ausgangswarme dienten neu entwickelte Kalorimeter, wahren die elektrischen Eingangsleistungen mit Standard-Messinstrumenten erfasst wurden. Im nachfolgenden Text werden die Versuchsaufbauten im Detail beschrieben. Fotografien der Versuchsaufbauten konnen uber das Internet bei der angegebenen Adresse abgerufen werden.
Die Firma CETI plant, innerhalb von 6 Monaten (d.h. bis Jahresmitte 1996) Verkaufsprototypen fur Raumheizungsgerate und Warmemotoren anzubieten. CETI arbeitet in Forschung und Entwicklung mit funf strategischen Partnern zusammen, einschliesslich der Universitaten von Illinois und Missouri.
Cold Fusion at Power Gen '95 in Anaheim
Last week, at the Power-Gen '95 Americas power industry trade show in Anaheim, a 1-kilowatt cold fusion reactor was demonstrated by Clean Energy Technologies, Inc. (CETI) film light water electrolytic cold fusion reactor. The cathode is composed of thousands of 1 mm diameter co-polymer beads with a flash coat of copper and multiple layers of electrolytically deposited thin film nickel and palladium. The beads are covered by three U.S. patents, with additional patents pending. During this demonstration, between 0.1 and 1.5 watts of electricity was input, and the cell output 450 to 1,300 watts of heat. CETI previously demonstrated smaller cold fusion cells. In April, at the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF5) they demonstrated input of 0.14 watts and a peak excess of 2.5 watts, a ratio of 1:18. In October, at the 16th biannual Symposium on Fusion Engineering (SOFE '95) they demonstrated a cell with 0.06 watts input and 5 watts peak output, a ratio of 1:83. Ratios at Power-Gen ranged from 1:1000 to 1:4000.
The ICCF5 and Power-Gen calorimeters were designed and constructed by Dennis Cravens. The SOFE '95 calorimeter was constructed by George Miley's group at the University of Illinois.
The Power-Gen cell and calorimeter are much larger than CETl's previous cold fusion demonstration devices. The cell is 10 cm long, 2.5 cm in diameter, containing roughly 40 ml of beads. Previous cells had about 1 ml of beads. The cell itself is wrapped in opaque foam plastic because the cell geometry has been improved and the improvements are not yet covered by patent applications. Other components in the calorimeter are made of clear Lucite plastic. (Photographs of the device can be found on the World Wide Web; see address below.)
The flow calorimeter reservoir held 2.5 liters and the flow rate was set between 1.0 and 1.5 liters per minute. A control cell was mounted parallel to the hot cell. The flow to both cells is regulated with precision valves. The reservoir and pump consist of a Magnum 220 aquarium pump with micron filter attachment, plus an additional Lucite cylinder built on top to hold a cooling coil, gas trap, and a muffin fan. Water is circulated by a magnetic impeller pump, driven by a 50 watt motor mounted underneath. Static in-line mixers ensure mixing. (These are plastic objects about an inch long with vanes to stir the flow.) A few weeks before the conference, Cravens decided to increase the flow rate in order to keep the temperature below 50 degrees C. The new flow rates exceed the capacity of his flow meters. He was not able to procure a bigger flow meter in time for the conference, so no flow meter was installed. Flow was measured by turning stopcocks to redirect fluid from the cell outlet tube into a graduated cylinder for 15 seconds. This test was performed many times, and the flow rate was not observed to change measurably, except when it was deliberately adjusted between runs. The water hose from pump is coiled in air cooled box on top of reservoir. Air is drawn through box by a 3.5 watt muffin fan. Total power consumption by all components in the calorimeter including the circulation pump, the cooling fan, the cell, control cell, and DC power supplies was 85 watts.
The Delta T temperatures and reservoir temperatures are measured with K-Type thermocouples, with Omega Model HH22 Microprocessor Thermometers. Power is measured with Metex M 3800 series multimeters. The pump, muffin fan and DC power supplies electrolysis all have one common AC cord, which is monitored by a Radio Shack analog AC voltmeter and a multimeter.
The first test was marred by a mysterious malfunction in the control cell. The control cell consisted of tin plated steel shot beads, arranged as an electrochemical cathode, in the same configuration as the smaller CETI thin beads. During tests at the lab, this produced no excess heat, as expected. However, during the first test at one point it appeared to be producing a Delta T temperature as high as 2.6 deg C. Assuming the flow rate and input power were stable, this would indicate a 216 watt excess. When Dennis noticed it was getting hot, he said he thought was due to a short circuit or an obstruction in the flow, or both, since a an obstruction would likely cause both problems. He turned off the control cell for safety, and repaired it later on. He reported to me the next day that it was shorted; the anode and cathode had come in contact because it was plugged up. I expect this explains the apparent excess, but I do not have any detailed data or additional information on this because I was no able to observe the equipment closely when this incident occurred. I did not verify the thermocouple temperatures, and I do not have an opportunity to note the input power levels were, what the flow rate was, or when the apparent excess began. (The incident occurred soon after I arrived. I was sitting across the room listening to the exposition.) The control cell was replaced with a joule heater for the remainder of the conference, which raised the water temperature the normal, expected amount.
Later on, in subsequent tests, I was able to observe the machine closely, and to make direct measurements of its performance with my own tools. I tested the flow rate on cold fusion cell side many times. As noted above, I did not see any measurable changes except when the flow was deliberately changed from 1,300 ml to 1,000 ml per minute by closing the valves. I checked the thermocouple readings in the reservoir, inlet and outlet with two thermistors and a thermometer, and all three agreed closely with the thermocouple readings. The reservoir temperature can be taken by picking up the top and inserting the thermistor probe into the water directly. Testing inlet and outlet temperature required a little more ingenuity. I confirmed the outlet thermocouple reading by taking a 250 ml sample of water from the outlet pipe during a flow test and immediately measuring the temperature before the sample cooled significantly. I confirmed the cold fusion inlet temperature by turning off the control side joule heater and taking a 250 ml sample from the control outlet pipe.
Several measurement results:
Test 1, December 4, two hours
Measured AC: 0.7 A * 120 V = 84 W
Electrolysis: 0.18 A * 8 V = 1.4 W
Flow rate 1200 ml/minute (300 ml/15 seconds)
Delta T Temperature 16 to 17 deg C
1200 ml * 16 deg C * 4.2 = 80,640 j/min = 1,344 W
Test 2, December 5, afternoon, 30 minutes.
Measured AC: 0.7 A * 140 V = 98 W
Electrolysis: 0.02 A * 3.9 V = 0.1 W
Flow rate 1000 ml/min (250 ml/15 seconds)
Delta T Temperature 6.7 deg C
1000 ml * 6.7 * 4.2 = 28,140 j/min = 469 W
Prototypes and consumer products
CETI plans to follow up on this demonstration with demonstrations of prototype consumer products, including larger cells for space heating and heat engines. They are hard at work on these devices and they will demonstrate them as soon they can. They estimate that it will take six months to one year to make suitable prototypes. CETI is now engaged in joint R&D projects with five corporate and university strategic partners, including the University of Illinois and the University of Missouri. All five have independently verified the excess heat. The University of Illinois group has fabricated beads from scratch using a sputtering technique rather than electrolytic deposition. They have observed excess heat from their own beads as well as beads provided to them by CETI.
Akira Kawasaki and I took many photographs of the calorimeter. I scanned four of them, and John Logajan uploaded them in his home page:
WWW URL = http://www.skypoint.com/members/jlogajan
I will describe the Power-Gen demonstration in more detail in an upcoming issue of "Infinite Energy" magazine.
Jed Rothwell, Contributing Editor
Eugene F. Mallove, Sc.D.,
Editor-in-Chief INFINITE ENERGY:
Cold Fusion and New Energy Technology
P.O. Box 2816
Concord, NH 03302-2816
Fax: 001 (603) 224 5975
Phone: 001 (603) 228 4516
Neue Horizonte in Technik und Bewusstsein
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Adolf und Inge Schneider (Hrsg.)
Bern: Jupiter-Verlag A.+l. Schneider, 1996
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