Courtesy of Pat Bailey
Courtesy of Pat Bailey
David Moon asked me to send you this. A drawing is attached [in the NEN]. A new approach to obtaining energy from the cold fusion reactions, by converting the energy directly to electricity, was disclosed in an article, "The Nucleo-Electric Effect" (Infinite Energy, number 13-14).
Following is a more detailed description of one cell design based on this concept.
Strong Pressure vessel (1) contains H2 or D2 gas. P-type semiconductor (2) has NP junction (3) with N - type semiconductor (4) that has been coated with a thin film of hydrogen -active metal (eg. Pd, Ni or Ti). Electrical contacts (5) connect the semiconductors to an external circuit (6) as well as to a rechargeable battery or energizer (7), in series with two large ohm resistors (8,81), which provide a forward - biased voltage across the NP junction greater than the contact potential set up in the reverse direction (P to N) . Hydrogen or deuterium gas is admitted to the evacuated vessel through valve (9). Pressure is above atmospheric, optimum pressure being determined by experiment. Hydrogen nuclei absorbed into the interface between the metallic film and surface of the N-type semiconductor react to drive excess electrons across the junction to the P side and out to the external circuit. PN-type rectifiers (10-13) in the circuits assure flow of electrons as indicated. These are heavily - doped tunnel diodes having less electrical resistance than other impurity semiconductors.
Operation of cell
The rechargeable battery or energizer (7) applies a voltage to the PN junction contrary to the equilibrium contact potential set up at the junction. A diffusion of electrons from N to P across the junction begins, but resistor (8) is designed to limit the rate of discharge of the battery (7) . If the external circuit (6) is closed, it may also contribute slightly to the current being applied. Absorption of sufficient H or D into the N - type semiconductor will, according to the "swimming electron layer" (SEL) theory (Miley, Hora), result in nuclear fusions or transmutations. It is proposed here that the nuclear energy released will excite electrons in the semiconductor from the valence band into the conduction band, at a worthwhile efficiency, thus generating an excess electrical potential. Initially, the current flows entirely through the external circuit (6).
When the generated current reaches the energy, such that the potential at C exceeds the potential at A, then some current (e- ) will flow from C to A. At point A, electrons have two possible pathways: from A to N to P to B, or from A thru (7) to B. The latter is the "recharging cycle" for the battery and should occur when the internal resistance of the battery (7) across AB, designated r7, is less than the total resistance from A to N to P to B. That is, when r7 << R8 + R11 + RNP + R81. The selection of resistors (8 and 81) must give enough ohms to steer the electron flow from A to B thru energizer (7) when V (at C) exceeds V (at A), in order to recharge the battery (7) during normal cell operation.
Current from the cell divides at C during normal output. To be a useful source of d.c. electricity, most of the electron flow from C to D will go through the external circuit (6). Therefore the total resistance from C to D passing through the battery (7), which is R13 + r7 + R12, will be considerably greater than the external resistance, R6 + R10, yet will allow for recharging. Further, to prevent the loss of electrical energy from P to B to D during operation, R81 + R 12 >>R6 + R10. If it happens that reactions in the N - type semiconductor fall below the minimum operational level, then V (at C) becomes less than V (at A), and battery (7) reenergizes the cell.
Choosing the correct components for this nucleo-electric cell, including the proper ohm resistors (8 and 81), can lead to a reliable*, rugged, self-sustaining and long-lasting source of direct current for many applications.
*Note : tests may prove individual cells produce varying d.c., but that cells in combination generate an acceptably steady current.
David Moon Minneapolis, MN, USA, September 18, 1998
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June 2, 1999.