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By Alexander V. Frolov

From: NEN, Vol. 6, No. 6, November 1998, pp. 13-18.
New Energy News (NEN) copyright 1998 by Fusion Information Center, Inc.
COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission.


By Alexander V. Frolov

[See Also: Reactionless Propulsion and Active Force, a paper by Alexander V. Frolov, INE post Nov. 2, 1998.]


The goal of this paper is to suggest some technological ways to create an active force that doesn't require reactive mass flow. The active force can be applied to many aerodynamics systems and the force is result of the pressure difference from the medium to the system. By analogy, the space-time itself can be considered as some medium of interaction.


There are known mechanical systems of gyroscope precession, gyroscopes of alternating radius, and gyroscopes of nonlinear vibrations. For other systems the velocity of rotation of the mass is changing for different parts of the trajectory that produce some inner gradient of pressure in the system from the rotor to the stator. Some mechanical systems use special vortex.

Electro-mechanical systems that use an electrically charged rotor.

There are known electromagnetic systems that use Lorenz force, magneto-hydro-dynamical effect, or Hall current. Some antigravitation effects have been investigated for so-called Hooper bi-directional coils and in the flat current systems (Mobius loops). An old idea is to use diamagnetic vapor that is accelerating in a permanent magnet field.

High electric potential systems have been produced by Tesla and by T.T. Brown's research work. The Biffield-Brown effect describes the active force that is created in any flat capacitor to the positive plate side for voltage above 50 kV. Dr. Brown did not explain the effect to show the reason for the force produced, therefore, we have to suppose that this force is a result of the asymmetry for orbital motion of the electrons in the dielectric atoms in strength of the electric field between the capacitor plates. The asymmetry leads to centrifugal force gradient and a non-zero linear component of this force.

Research programs for superconductivity gravitation connection.

A special case is thermo-gravitation propulsion technologies. Fig. 1. shows a plan for an experiment that was described by Alexander Shegolev as weight changes in a heated metal ball if in the top of the ball the cone part was removed to create non-zero total heat flow of this mass.

[All Figures are in the New Energy News.]

[All Figures are also in: Reactionless Propulsion and Active Force, a paper by Alexander V. Frolov, INE post Nov. 2, 1998.]

The next obvious step is to find the reasons for this active (reactionless) force. It is known that interactions among atoms or molecules and space-time are normally demonstrated as chaotic oscillations or movements which are considered as heat processes in matter. In material objects of special shape (like the ball in Fig. 1.1), the vector sum of such oscillations is not equal to zero. Therefore, the object gets some impulse in the of this impulse is the same as the nature of chaotic impulses that are received by any atoms from the space-time (from the aether).

Fig. 1.2. shows a plan for another thermo-gravitation closed system design: the reactive flow is transformed by some converter. One of many versions for it is the cooling of the flow by means of special vortex process. Similar to Fig. 1.1, the active force is the result of non-zero vector sum for heat processes of each particle of the matter.

It is appropriate to make some supposition about the nature of heat energy. According to Pavel D. Ouspensky (Russian philosopher) and Nikolay A. Kozyrev (Russian astrophysicist), there is energy exchange between particles of matter and the so called "flow of time" for any real existing material particle. In other words, it is the physical mechanism of existence of the mass-matter in the time flow. By P.D. Ouspensky, the heat chaotic oscillations are the result of this energy exchange. By N.A. Kozyrev, the stars have no inner source of energy but they are working like some kind of machine that transforms the energy of so-called "flow of time" into the energy of heat radiation (electromagnetic waves). Therefore, we can make the conclusion: The existence of any material system is defined by its energy exchange with so called "flow of time" of certain velocity, i.e., rate of process.

Modern physics of the vacuum considers the notion about so called "virtual particles." The old idea for the aether particles can also explain chaotic impulse interaction between real particles of matter and vacuum (aether). The target now can be formulated as follows: an active drive could be designed if the conditions for directed impulse energy exchange between real and virtual particles are created. Such an interaction takes place anytime and always, but the total vector sum is zero for the spontaneous nature of the process. We have a chance to order this process as directed heat flow in the mass of the drive, or to influence the vacuum by means of force field (electrical, for example) to order the processes of creation and annihilation of the virtual particles. Such sort of influence is the reason for electrical interactions. Fig. 2 shows repulsion and attraction modes for two electrically-charged bodies. The first case, total sum intensity between bodies is less than the intensity of each body. The second case, the intensity between bodies is more than the intensity of the electrical field of each body. In fact, each electrically-charged body is surrounded by joint summary electrical field that is not symmetrical and some gradient of electrical intensity is the reason for the force. It is important to understand that there is direct interaction between body and surrounding space (aether) and force is the result of the gradient of the pressure such as for aerodynamics. There is no need for a hypothesis about so called long distance interaction, since all force interactions (electrical included) are simple mechanical effects.

Lorentz force also can be considered a result of some gradient in the aether, Fig. 2.3. Since the intensity of the field itself is the gradient of the potential ( E = - grad phi ), so the gradient of the intensity of the field (grad E) is a quality new notion that may lead to new physical effects, i.e., to the active non-compensated force.

Assuming the common nature of the examples considered we have to conclude: the base for electrical and magnetic interactions is the same as for energy exchange of heat processes. The field means some area of space where the processes of interaction between the aether and matter are not chaotic and spontaneous, but are ordered in some degree. More order means more value of the force. The field influence to processes of impulse interaction between material particles and aether (virtual) particles make this interaction directed in some certain direction. This way we are coming to the mechanics on the aether level as the base for electricity and gravitation that is electro-gravitational unification.

Let's consider some design, where the properties of matter are used to create the situation described above. It is necessary to note that there is no difference, in principle, between a particle of matter and the space area adjacent to the particle as was mentioned by Faraday. So, if we are working to make some special structure of the matter, we are working with space structure in the volume of this material object.

The dielectric (Fig. 3) that is placed between plates is non-linear since there is a gradient of permittivity along the electrical intensity lines. Normally, the polarization of particles of the dielectric is symmetrical in positive and negative plate side. But, in this case, the asymmetry of properties of the dielectrics produce the asymmetry of polarization and there is some non-compensated force in this kind of capacitor. T.T. Brown patented something like this in USA patent 3187206 of May 9, 1959. Simplest case is a two-layer dielectric (Fig. 4.1). where the force is created on the border between two different dielectrics. This force is known since 1927 and it is known in industry as the Johnsen-Raabek effect.

Consider an experiment, as depicted in Fig.4.2. The base of the design is the dielectric of permittivity = 6 for one layer and a second layer is the dielectric of permittivity = 1. The size of the plate is 100 square cm. The high potential direct current source is a self-made design. The potential difference is about 10 kV. The calculated active force should be about 0.001 Newtons or 150 mg that was detected by means of rotation torsion effect.

Fig.5 is an approximate calculation for a commercial project. The surface is taken as 100 square meters. The capacity of sphere for 1 cm radius is 1 pF, the calculated capacity should be about 1 microFarad. The special ceramics can be used that increase the permittivity from 1 up to 80.The potential of 100 kV is a reasonable value. For this potential and the surface we'll get the electrical charge about 8 Coulomb. The difference of forces that are acting on the particles of this gradient dielectric is about 80 ton.

There is a square function for force from the potential, so it is more useful to increase the potential for the same surface than to increase the surface.

In conclusion, some comments about the necessity for a true law of impulse conservation. The name of the report reactionless propulsion noted the absence of ordinary reactive flow of fuel mass. In the systems considered above, there is the reaction force since the velocity of the system is changing and the compensation effect here is the change of the impulse of the virtual particles or particles of the aether. Therefore, the heat energy exchange balance should be changed and the aether is expected to become colder. The effect can be detected since the time rate should change for the mass of the so-called working body of such kind of active drive.

Alexander V. Frolov
P.O. Box 37, St.-Petersburg, 193024, Russia

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Jan. 11, 1999.