**THE MISSING DOPPLER EFFECT**

By Bert Schreiber

From: NEN, Vol. 6, No. 10, July 1999, pp. 8-12.

New Energy News (NEN) copyright 1999 by Fusion Information Center, Inc.

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THE MISSING DOPPLER EFFECT

Bert Schreiber (Bellaire, TX)

ABSTRACT

The Doppler effect is a mechanical equation (self-evident). It was changed by others into a quantum equation. There is a missing Doppler effect which has been overlooked. The finding of this effect totally changes current theories and can, properly applied, eliminate the Theory of Relativity in reality, nullify same, i.e., reality vs. false theory.

BACKGROUND

The author will assume the readers are familiar with the Doppler effect. There have been many scientific papers written on why the Doppler effect (including some based upon Einstein's Relativity).

For brevity, only one example will be given. It is obvious that the relative movement of the source and/or observer is a cosine function and the equations for light and sound are different, which will be ignored here, as that does not change the end results. Therefore, the single example given can be modified, as such will then cover all of the variations of same.

EXPERIMENT

On a straight stretch of train track there is a train. Standing at the rear of the train between the rails is an observer. The observer will time how long the train whistle is blown. The engineer has been instructed to blow his whistle for exactly one second while the train is not moving and then when he has put the train in forward motion and reached an agreed upon set speed, to blow the whistle exactly one second again.

The first blast is timed by the observer to be one second. Then the train moves and the whistle is blown the second time. The observer measures how long the whistle blew and it is/was longer than when the train was at rest.

RESULTS

The results are a result of a simple mechanical situation and are self-evident. The Doppler effect, **mechanical** (classical) equations, has nothing to do with any theory, much less Relativity, required to "explain" same.

What all have overlooked, up to this point, is for any source of oscillation (production or frequency to keep this simple) there must be some elapsed time for same to occur. The production of one cycle or a fixed number of cycles takes some **absolute finite (fixed) time**.

When the train was at rest, say the whistle's frequency was 1000 cyc/sec, then **1000** cycles were produced in that one second.

When the train was moving, that production or emission time was still one second and 1000 cycles were produced, but, the source was moving and hence was moving away from the observer so that: From the first cycle to the last one, the train had moved up the tracks **stretching out** the communication's path length.

This is the same as making each of the original wavelengths longer, hence, a decrease in the frequency. The original (as at rest or moving, same thing) **number** of cycles did not change, but the observer **counts** per hiser [unisex for his/her] unit of time did change. Hence, if the observer was measuring the original and final frequency and/or wavelength, **relativistic effects**, there would have been a difference.

In the normal laboratory source observer situation, the source's **absolute** Doppler effect occurs as it is moving in space. Speed and direction is immaterial. The observer is moving at the identical speed and direction which **negates** the original Doppler effect. Therefore, the observer can, and does, measure the values **as if** both were **at a point of absolute rest**, i.e., the true number of cycles emitted, the true emission time, the true frequency, and the true wavelength.

APPLICATION

What all forgot is the change in the communication's path length. Where light was used, it was assumed to be a photon or was a photon [1] having **no creation time**, a complete and total impossibility and absurdity. This was a **false postulate** (assumption) to start with and **ignores reality**. Therefore, all of those thousands of scientific papers using Lorentz whatever or frames-of-reference whatever which were used to prove **the existence of the nonexistent**, are worthless.

**It was not taking into consideration this communication's path length changes which was "attributed" to Einstein's relativistic effects, or the conservation of mass-energy in the classical/relativistic, when it was not so. It is the old classical physics properly applied.**

The "apparent" increased time of decay of muons when moving at a high speed was likewise hailed as a triumph for the proof of relativity. Time slowed down. Afraid it does not.

It takes some time for the muon to decay, how long immaterial, but it is not instantaneous. All it did was to decay in the identical time which it normally does so to the absolute time of the universe. This is called at an absolute rest reference point, which it is in reality. The time as **measured** by the laboratory "clock" took longer because the communication's path length was greater.

OVERKILL

The author has a hard time trying to get his simple thoughts through to readers because of their fixed pre-beliefs. Therefore, this simple illustration should make it very clear.

A slug of ice is inserted into a long tube of very hot gas. The ice melts, in say one second, and gives off a **"signal."** The signal (start of melting to end of melting) reaches the detector likewise during this same time. Now a compressed air gun fires this slug into the tube so it is moving faster. It takes the **same time** to melt, but the ice has moved further down the tube so the signal now takes a **longer time** (start to end, the **end** of which is further away from the detector) to reach the detector. ERGO, time must have slowed down because the laboratory "clock" says so.

CONCLUSION

The Doppler effect is nothing more than the mechanical results of the movement of the source in/through space (no source can ever be at absolute rest) during a fixed (absolute) emission time and for the interception time required of the moving observer, mechanical/ mathematical relativistic cosine (vector) effect.

The **vector** of speed is called velocity and created much confusion. Velocity is unique in that it is the only one whose scalar component, magnitude (an actual number and dimensions can be assigned), has a designation distinct from the vector, that is speed.

Therefore, the Relativity equations use velocity which resulted in such nonsense as: The velocity of light is a constant or the increase of mass with velocity, ad nauseum.

REMOVING RELATIVITY

Readers are referred to ref. [2] which is on changing the rules. Relativity only works when using light and the communication's signal is **through free space**. When a mechanical/ physical connection is made, change the rule(s). The result is relativity ceases to exist.

When there is a fixed carrier from the train whistle to the observer, the time of the whistle blowing would remain one second. This fixed carrier of a fixed length, could have been a long, hollow air-filled tube (coiled and unwinding) from whistle to observer or a microphone and wire cable ditto. The time "inside" said tube or cable is not relativistic.

Let the whistle be replaced with a flashing light and the carrier be an optic cable. Measured space path flash time varies vs. measured carrier flash time **fixed**. [absolute]

In case the readers "still don't get it", using continuous light as the signal does not change anything. Each cycle of same still requires some emission time creation and/or an extended emission time for any chosen number of cycles. Each cycle is "one flash." That is **reality**.

In case readers do not make the connection once again, this time changing is also known (and the equation^{1}* holds true when **properly applied**) as "TIME DILATION." [3] **Mass, length, nor time has any real change**, only **its "apparent" measures**.

Goodbye Relativity.

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^{1} The time dilation equation (Lorentz transformation) can be, though apparently not well known, converted directly into a cosine function format. As in ref [3].

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MATHEMATICS

The mathematics of using the Doppler equations can be simplified. Let DR be the ratio between original set to a unit of 1 and final that on the right. Assuming some value of v gives the right as 1.01 = DR automatically (source or observer or both receding, only one v necessary) then for the chosen original value observed:

1. Divide frequency by DR.

2. Multiply wavelength by DR.

3. Multiply emission time by DR

Further applicable minutiae obvious.

HISTORICAL NOTES

1. About 100 years ago, a stylus (short bristle) was glued vertically to one end of a fixed tuning fork. When a smoked glass plate (or on a rotating drum) was moved at right angles to that stylus, the path of the vibrations on the plate traced a sine wave. Depending on how fast the plate was moved, the wavelength (frequency) was either compressed, remained the same, or was expanded. The tuning fork is the fixed source and the plate the relative motion of the "observer." The implications of this were not connected to the Doppler effect, nor to Relativity.

2. Stefan Marinov (1931-1997) born in Sofia, Bulgaria, performed the equivalent toothed wheel light experiment as used to measure the speed of light in 1980, as done by Fizeau and Michelson earlier. The exception was, he used the intensity (frequency energy change actually) measured to an order of 10**(-5) [0.00001] accuracy using photodiodes. He therefore determined the pulse's absolute "Doppler effect" and determined the direction and speed of the Earth through space. His value agreed with E.W. Silvertooth's. [4]

3. Therefore, there are four experiments each which measured the speed and direction of the Earth through space. One by Silvertooth using interference fringe shifts, two by Marinov using two different methods, and the results of the COBE experiments or that **fixed** 2.7øK 'background" radiation detection.

The author has a proposed experiment which uses the **time of flight** (How long did the whistle actually or apparently blow?) of a pulse(s) of light to begin with which will permit the absolute speed and direction of the apparatus (Earth) to be detected and measured.[3]

How many (more) times must this be done before the scientific establishment will be forced to admit the truth?

References:

[1] B. Schreiber, "The Photon, Fact or Fiction?" Toth-Maatian Press, 1998, vol 14, no 2, p 6645-6651.

[1] same in R&M #26, September/October 1997

[2] B. Schreiber, "Changing the Rules," R&M #12, May/June, 1995.

[3] B. Schreiber, "Quantum - Quanta Theory * * * The Theory of The Universe," self-published, Fourth revision, April 1999.

[4] J.P. Wesley, "In Memoriam: Stefan Marinov," Galilean Electrodynamics, Special Issue, Spring 1999, pages 11-12.

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Aug. 25, 1999.