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By Bo Lehnert and Sisir Roy, Reviewed by Hal Fox

From: NEN, Vol. 6, No. 10, July 1999, pp. 15-16.
New Energy News (NEN) copyright 1999 by Fusion Information Center, Inc.
COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission.


A Book Review, by Hal Fox

Extended Electromagnetic Theory, Space-Charge in vacuo and the Rest Mass of the Photon, Bo Lehnert and Sisir Roy, World Scientific Series in Contemporary Chemical Physics - Vol 16, Publ. by World Scientific, River Edge, NJ 07661, c1998, 160 pages, illus., 100 refs, indexed, ISBN 981-02-3395-7.

In this timely monograph, the authors develop important equations using modified forms of Maxwell's equations. Some of the conditions developed are for a nonzero divergence of the electric field and for nonzero mass of the photon coupled with the concept of a nonzero electrical conductivity of the vacuum. The end result is some important new concepts that can be tested in the laboratory. The conditions by which the photon had previously been shown to have zero mass are carefully presented and shown not to a binding constraint. With the photon shown to have a nonzero mass, it is shown that such photons can interact with a nonzero conductivity of space with the result that photons can lose energy. The energy lost is shown to be reasonably close to the measured low-frequency microwave radiation which appears to penetrate all space. The end result is consistent with observed experimental evidence; can be shrunk to approach the concept of a point charge; fits much of the data of the neutrino; appears consistent with an earlier proposed string model of hadron structures and leads to further development.

In addition, new types of electromagnetic wave phenomena can be described. This leads to a better method to handle both wave and particle behavior and can explain total reflection of light. Both longitudinal and transverse waves are handled. The new approach developed may lead to a deeper insight to the transition of a beam of photons to macroscopic light waves.

Of most interest to this reviewer is the development of the concept of "tired" light: light which loses some of its energy without distortion so that the visual field (such as photos of distant stars) is essentially unaffected. It is shown that the photons can have mass; that the interaction of such a nonzero mass of photons with space-charge in the vacuum of space can result in lower photon energy (a red shift). Further, it is shown that the lost energy appears to closely match the observed microwave energy in space. Thus the two bastions of evidence for the Big Bang (red shift, and microwave radiation) are analytically explained. This analytical development is sufficient reason for any thoughtful scientist to ensure that this book is purchased and read. The list price of $32 should not be a barrier for such an important contribution to the advancement of our understanding of new aspects of electromagnetic radiation.

[Note: The findings of this book (concerning the red shift and the background microwave radiation) support a similar result. See: P. Anastasovski, H. Fox, K. Shoulders, "A New Approach to the Cosmic Red-Shift and to the Cosmic Microwave Sources," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 79-87, 4 refs, 5 figs.]

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Aug. 25, 1999.