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By Hal Fox, Editor

From: NEN, Vol. 4, No. 7, November 1996, pp. 1-3.
New Energy News (NEN) copyright 1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc.
COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission.

Now that we understand the importance and nature of cold fusion, it is time to nominate B. Stanley Pons, Martin Fleischmann (Fellow of the Royal Society), and Kenneth R. Shoulders for a Nobel Prize. Pons and Fleischmann deserve the prize for their fundamental discovery of cold fusion [1]. Kenneth R. Shoulders deserves a part of the prize for his excellent work in discovering and revealing how nuclear reactions take place in both the palladium-heavy-water system and in the sono-fusion system [2]. A further degree of experimental information about nuclear reactions has been added by the Neal-Gleeson Process [3].

A summary of these fundamental discoveries illustrates how important they have been and will be in the rapid advancement of the treatment of radioactive wastes (especially radioactive slurries); the production of thermal energy without neutrons; and probably the development of factory-made scarce elements [4].

The importance of these discoveries merits a tutorial on the power of ion-carrying charge clusters.


Charge clusters can be created in a variety of environments ranging from near vacuum to some liquids. Kenneth Shoulders has taught, in both his book [5] and his patents [6], how to make and recognize charge clusters. These charge clusters are created by most sparks, lightning, and more professionally, by the techniques demonstrated by Shoulders in several of his patents [6].

Recently, it has been determined that charge clusters can be created in liquids, provided that the correct electrodes, molarity, voltage and current are properly chosen. For some early research in which it is believed that charge clusters were being created in ethylene glycol with silicon, see the work of Waring and Benjamini [7]. It is unlikely that the authors realized the nature of the "sparks" emitted from the silicon when the voltage was increased beyond the normal range for luminescence. It is also believed that the effective method for promoting nuclear reactions in the Neal-Gleeson Process is the formation and use of charge clusters, although this observation was not known to the authors at the time the paper was written [3].

It is believed that in their atmospheric spark-gap experiments, Reiter and Faile [8] are creating and observing the remarkable effects of charge clusters [8].

[Fig.1. Charge Cluster in Strong Electric Field]

Fig. 1 illustrates a typical one micron charge cluster consisting of about 1011 (100 billion) electrons. Due to some, as yet unknown, high degree of dynamics, the cluster creates internal forces that are stronger than the mutual repulsion forces of the electrons. The end result is that the cluster is stable, at least while it is moving. As shown in the illustration, the negative cluster can attract and retain a relatively small number of positive ions (one ion for about every 100,000 electrons). In fact, the high degree of concentrated charge on a cluster will ionize gases and liquids under proper conditions. For example, if a charge cluster is created in a hydrogen atmosphere, some of the ionized hydrogen ions (we call protons) will be attracted to the charge cluster.

In Fig. 1, we depict the charge cluster in a strong electrostatic field with a downstream anode connected to a positive 5,000-volt power supply. In this strong electric gradient, the charge cluster (and the attached ions) will accelerate to a velocity of about one-tenth the speed of light. If we were to build a proton accelerator, we would have to use an accelerating voltage of about nine million volts to impart the same velocity to a cluster of protons. Therefore, this simple device is essentially a high-energy accelerator of positive ions but based on a low-energy initial source!

We know that the proton is about 1836 times as heavy as the electron. If we calculate the impact momentum (mv2) that has been provided to each proton attached to the charge cluster, we find that the impact energy, according to standard nuclear physics, is sufficient to cause nuclear reactions.


As discovered and patented by Shoulders [6], charge clusters can be used to make or create more energy output than input to the device. As discovered and now as a patent pending, Neal and Gleeson have found a method (Neal-Gleeson Process) by which radioactive elements can be stabilized. The method by which charge clusters can reduce radioactivity is conceptually easy to understand. If one looks at a chart of Nuclides and Isotopes, the high-mass elements are replete with radioactive isotopes. On the other hand, the lower-mass elements and their isotopes are more stable. The role of the charge cluster and its load of positive ions is to impact the radioactive heavy element; cause the elements to become unstable; promote spontaneous fission; and produce two (normally) smaller fragments which are usually stable. The process is basically simple when you know how to do it.

Now that we understand the process, at least one patent is pending on the use of an embodiment of the process by which low-energy (input) clusters can promote selected nuclear reactions which will produce high amounts of thermal energy. For example, let us assume that lead (Pb-208 to be precise) is the target element. We bombard the lead with a charge cluster, it becomes unstable and splits into two equal halves and provides us with two atoms of palladium (Pd-104). The process is a little more complicated because we have to deal with the mass of the impacting ion. However, to keep it simple, assume the that Pb-208 atom with a mass of 207.976627 is impacted, caused to fission and produces two Pd-104 atoms. The total mass produced is then two times 103.90403 or 207.80806. Note that the mass produced (207.80805) is less than the mass of the Pb-108 (207.976627). The difference in mass is not much, but according to Einstein's formula E = mc2, we can calculate the energy equivalent of the missing mass fraction. Of course, even a small amount of missimg mass multiplied by the speed of light squared will be a significant amount of energy. Therefore, this reaction, if we can cause it to be produced, will provide thermal energy to our system.


In the preceding section, we discussed the possibility of using Pb as a target material, impacting the lead with charge clusters and transmuting the lead into palladium to get excess thermal energy. If we could accomplish that feat, then we would have the thermal energy plus a more valuable element produced than we started with! Nature may not be so kind. The idea that a particular nuclear reaction is possible does not mean that the same reaction is probable. Nature will inform us, as we ask the correct questions, what we can and cannot accomplish. However, it is believed that there are many scarce elements in the periodic table which we will be able to make from more plentiful elements. It is the judgement of this author that an element in nature is scarce because the probability of making such an element is low -- meaning that the production of such element must require energy. However, it appears that creating energy with nuclear reactions will be relatively simple. It is also expected that we will be able to find the combination of ions and target elements that can be used together with input energy to create the scarce element of our choice.


Now you realize the enormous importance of what Pons, Fleischmann, Shoulders, and others have accomplished. They should get the Nobel prize! They deserve the recognition. A new line of research and development in physics has now been provided. At least one, and probably several new patent applications have resulted from this new line of research and development. In summary, we now know how we can do the following:

1. Clean up radioactive wastes.
2. Create clean, abundant, thermal energy -- with no neutrons.
3. Create factory-produced scarce elements.

Note to investors: FIC has filed a patent application that will cover a broad range of nuclear transmutation topics. FIC is seeking interested help from brokers to help make a market for the soon-to-be-filed public registration of FIC's stock. If you can help, fax Hal Fox at 801-583-2963.


1. Martin Fleischmann, Stanley Pons, and M. Hawkins, "Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium," J. Electroanal. Chem., (1989), vol 261, pp 301-308, and erratum, vol 263, p 187.

2. Kenneth and Steve Shoulders, "Observations on the Role of Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions", J of New Energy, Fall 1996, vol 1, no 3.

3. Bass, Neal, Gleeson, & Fox, "Electro-Nuclear Transmutations: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in an Electrolytic Cell," J of New Energy, Fall 1996, vol 1, no 3.

4. Hal Fox, Robert W. Bass, & Shang-Xian Jin, "Plasma-Injected Transmutation," J of New Energy, Fall 1996, vol 1, no 3.

5. Kenneth R. Shoulders, EV - A Tale of Discovery, 265 pages, illus., c1987, privately published and available from the author.

6. Kenneth R. Shoulders, "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density," U.S. Patent 5,018,180, issued May 21, 1991, see also "Circuits Responsible to and Controlling Charged Particles," U.S. Patent 5,054,047, issued Oct. 1, 1991.

7. Worden Waring & E.A. Benjamini, "Luminescence during the Anodic Oxidation of Silicon," J of the Electrochem. Soc., vol 111, no 11, Nov 1994, pp 1256-1259.

8. Reiter and Faile, "Spark Gap Experiments," New Energy News, Sept 1996, p 11ff.

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Nov. 19, 1996.